Fake news as а modern media phenomenon: features of formation and functioning in Indonesia (2017-2021) (Фейковые новости как современный медиафеномен: особенности формирования и функционирования в Индонезии (2017-2021 гг.)) тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 10.01.10, кандидат наук Мукситх Мунадхил Абдул

  • Мукситх Мунадхил Абдул
  • кандидат науккандидат наук
  • 2022, ФГАОУ ВО «Российский университет дружбы народов»
  • Специальность ВАК РФ10.01.10
  • Количество страниц 222
Мукситх Мунадхил Абдул. Fake news as а modern media phenomenon: features of formation and functioning in Indonesia (2017-2021) (Фейковые новости как современный медиафеномен: особенности формирования и функционирования в Индонезии (2017-2021 гг.)): дис. кандидат наук: 10.01.10 - Журналистика. ФГАОУ ВО «Российский университет дружбы народов». 2022. 222 с.

Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Мукситх Мунадхил Абдул












Conclusion on Chapter











Conclusion on Chapter







Рекомендованный список диссертаций по специальности «Журналистика», 10.01.10 шифр ВАК

Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «Fake news as а modern media phenomenon: features of formation and functioning in Indonesia (2017-2021) (Фейковые новости как современный медиафеномен: особенности формирования и функционирования в Индонезии (2017-2021 гг.))»


The relevance of the study. The term of Fake news has many synonyms - disinformation campaigns, digital world propaganda, cognitive hacking, and information warfare - all just the aspects of a bigger problem: manipulating public opinion to influence the wider public. Millions of information fill public spaces every minute widely, without limits on time and distance. The need for modern society's information consumes news online and via social media, fosters selective exposure to ideological content, resulting in an "echo chamber" of like-minded opinion. Echo chambers limit exposure to "other" views, and in so doing, they can fuel social extremism and group polarization. What is important, most people still do not realize that they are the subject of what is called a "micro targeting" campaign by agents, companies, and paid political campaigns on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube to target audiences with specific profiles with certain messages.

This is the age of the Post-Truth era. Like its cousin Fake news, this notion has gained a lot of traction in the media and academia, which helps to explain why there have been so many books and articles written about it in recent years. Pew Research survey of Americans in 2016 showed that nearly 65% of the population felt fake news confused them about facts [Pew research survey, 15.12.2016]. The rapid and massive spread of fake news can cause unexpected social harm. 1. Financial loss. A lot of false information is used by agents to commit fraud to gain profits through messenger chain messages or email, buying products or drugs that are not efficacious, and so on; 2. Spreading fear. Because getting false information makes people experience insomnia due to anxiety. 3. Increasing racism. Fake news can have a negative impact on increasing racial issues, such as Islamophobia, Xenophobia, the strengthening of white supremacy

groups, and the majority group that has occurred recently due to disinformation on the issue of the origin of the COVID-19 virus from China. 4. Destructive modern democracy. Fake news after being integrated into information flow can manipulate the outcome of a political event such as an election.

As the disease spread around the world in February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) warned that an "infodemic accompanied it" - "an overabundance of information - some accurate, some not - that makes it difficult for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it. Analysis conducted by the Infodemic COVID-19 Observatory with the Twitter database has been carried out from January 21, 2020, to May 07, 2020 on more than 200 million messages on Twitter found that 42% of messages are transmitted via robots, and 29.6% of orders are news messages cannot be trusted. Sixty-one millions of these messages are in the form of untrustworthy news, and another 87 million messages are in the form of message pollution transmitted via robots [Muzykant V.L., et al., 2021]. There are 600 thousand messages that cannot be trusted every day, and robots spread 800 thousand messages on Twitter related to COVID-19 [148]. The amount of false information about COVID-19 that is so fast is exacerbating the situation of countries in the world that are at the same time trying to control the rapid spread of the coronavirus and causing a crisis in a country's universal health system.

Fake news is not a new phenomenon. Two events a few years back revive the old term, albeit with slightly changed meanings. Brexit and the 2016 US presidential election campaign were marked by fake news spread through the media and social networks and promoted in the public domain [Muqsith M.A. and Muzykant V.L., 2019]. The term "Fake news" includes misinformation (when false information is shared harmlessly), disinformation (when false information is shared with the intention of causing harm), and mal-information (when the original information is shared to cause harm, often by displacing the

designed information to remain private to the public space) as defined by Wardle Q and Derakhshan D.H. in Information Disorder report [240].

In Indonesia, contemporary studies on fake news on social media have begun to attract the attention of experts since 2017 at Jakarta Governor Election and reached its highest temporary peak, namely during the 2019 Presidential Election, when many parties participated. The study that experts in the past few years are echoing is the role of government, political elites, and public figures in using their power to mobilize political buzzers and bots to change public opinion, spread government or party propaganda, attack political opponents, and disseminate information to divide the public-hashtags to pursue virality on social media. False news stories that are difficult to trace the truth quickly go viral on social media during COVID-19 pandemic, triggering uproar and infodemic, followed by unrests, and even counterproductive manifest conflicts.

The degree of scientific elaboration of the topic. Russian and foreign researchers periodically address the problem of the phenomenon of fake news or fabricated information has become a serious challenge in the Internet era. Its diffusion reflects a situation in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than attracting personal emotions and beliefs. The speed of information has increased drastically, with messages now spreading anonymously within seconds. The flood of information overwhelms the reader, indicating the validity of the information. Technological growth is not worth fighting the spread of fake news because the spread is faster and easier since the era of the Internet and smartphones. Before the Internet, people accessed information from print media, radio, or television. Because fewer sources provide news, an easy and accurate medium is also possible. However, with Internet news moving online, suddenly anyone can post information on places like Facebook and Twitter with so much information coming from all angles, easily gullible, especially when an article is made to look like a verified news

source, people generally believe it's true because it looks like this news is happening more than ever.

This research relied on different books and periodicals, which have similar topics to the concept of Fake news (misinformation, disinformation and malinformation). In light of these requirements, special attention was paid to the works of such researchers as Baines D., and Elliot R. J. (2020) [13], Fauzi I. A., et al. (2019) [53], Ferreira C.C., and Robertson J. (2019) [54], Ilyas U. (2020) [77], Ireton C., and Posetti J. (2018) [80], Juditha C., and Darmawan J.J. (2021) [91], Kogan S., Moskowitz, T. J., and Niessner M. (2019) [103], Kovach B., and Rosentiel T. (2012) [105], Kshetri N., and Voas J. (2017) [108], Linden S.V.D., et al. (2020) [118], Muqsith M.A., and Muzykant V.L. (2019) [144], Naeem B., et al. (2020) [156], Nielsen R. K., and Graves L. (2017) [159], Rini R. (2017) [180], Rubin V.L., Chen Y., and Conroy N. K. (2016) [188], Zimdars M., and McLeod K. (2020) [256], Tandoc Jr C., et al. (2018) [220], Turcio L.T., and Obrenovic M. (2020) [225], Vasu N., et al. (2018) [231], Wardle C., and Derakhshan D. H. (2017) [240], Wang C. (2020) [238], Posetti J., and Matthews A. (2019) [171], Stahl K. (2018) [218], Wildana F. (2021) [249], Zarocostas J. (2020) [253], and others.

This research is based on various studies on the concept of Fake news as theory of social media, political communication, traditions and modern journalism, etc. In the process of preparing the dissertation, the author analysed specialized English, Russian and Indonesian literature on the issues being studied: Bridgman A., Merkley E., et al. (2021) [30], Bushuyev S., et al. (2020) [34], Farooq G. (2018) [52], Kopp C., et al. (2019) [104], Kristiyono J., and Jayanti R.O. (2017) [107], Lazer D.M.J., et al. (2018) [111], Meyer R. (2018) [133], Muqsith M.A., et al. (2021) [148], Muqsith M.A., et al. (2021) [147], Muzykant V.L., et al. (2021) [155], Richardson N. (2017) [179], Rochlin N. (2017) [184], Schackmuth A. (2018) [198], Septanto H. (2018) [202], Shesterina A.M., et al. (2020) [205], Shesterina A.M. (2020) [206], Shires J. (2021) [207],

Sommariva S., et al. (2018) [213], Verstraete M., et al. (2021) [232] as well as in Russian: Братина О.А., и Братина О.А. (2018) [258], Буряковская В.А., Дмитриева О.А. (2020) [259], Ильченко С.Н. (2018) [260], Крылова Е.Н.

(2020) [261], Mанойло А.В., Петренко А. И., Фролов Д. Б. [262], Рева E.K., Межина B.A. (2020) [263], Стригунов K.C., Манойло А.В., Безвербный В. А.

(2021) [264], Шестерина А.М. (2020) [265], etc.

The object of the study is fake news, its occurrence, modern features and functioning in the digital communication space.

The subject of the study is the peculiarity of fake news spread in worldwide and Indonesian social networks, as well as methods for effectively counteracting this phenomenon based on the research of active users' behaviour in 2017-2021.

The purpose of the study is to identify, describe, analyze the global concept of Fake news as a modern phenomenon with its unique features of formation, functioning, and based on the Indonesian experience, develop general recommendations to combat the consequences of the spread of messages of this kind.

To achieve the goal, these research tasks were formulated:

• Analyze the development of fake news within the framework of the existing concept of "Information Disorder", put forward by Wardle C. and Derakhshan D. H.

• Based on the current practice of traditional and new media, justify the typology of fake news, identifying their unique characteristics.

• Summarize knowledge about fake news in social networks and identify the relationship of existing theories about fakes with the so-called Post-Truth concept.

• Identify the motives and goals of the creators and distributors of fake news aimed at manipulating the public.

• Determine the features of the emergence of fake news and the specifics of the content of fake news spread in Indonesia.

• Analyze the range and effectiveness of fake news media channels and the response of Indonesian content consumers to these messages.

• Conduct a comparative analysis of fake news content distributed through traditional and new media in the world, as well as in Indonesia.

• Investigate the relationship between the influence of digital media and the relevance of the topics discussed with the intensity and focus of fake news in Indonesian society during the infodemic caused by COVID-19.

• Identify the degree of penetration of fake news into the Indonesian society through digital media during the COVID-19 infodemic, and based on the results obtained during the study, analyze the experience of countering this phenomenon.

Scientific novelty of the dissertation lies in the fact that in the work, based on a wide range of sources and taking into account expert assessments of Russian, foreign and Indonesian researchers, a comprehensive analysis of the origin, content and modern functioning of fake news is carried out. This work is one of the first comprehensive scientific studies exploring the theoretical and methodological approaches to fake news as a modern phenomenon in the context of the escalation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on extensive empirical material, the researcher convincingly confirms that serious efforts to spread fake news with far-reaching consequences for Indonesian society have been made repeatedly since the advent of the so-called Post-Truth era. The researcher proves that in a modern communicative society, only programs to counter fake news jointly developed by government and journalistic professional communities can act as a new means of managing public behaviour in a communication crisis. The novelty of the study is the practical application of the "Information Disorder" concept tested in Indonesia by Wardle C. and Derakhshan D.H., which classifies seven types of fake information, which was

significantly supplemented and enriched by the researcher during the COVID-19 induced infodemic in Indonesia. The novelty of the work is also the fact that the dissertation presents a new perspective in highlighting the phenomenon of fake news as a serious threat to information security and gives the author's assessment of the prospects for countering this phenomenon in the framework of achieving the goals of sustainable development of states. The paper uses materials and original sources in Russian, English and Indonesian, many of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

The theoretical significance of the work in the fact that a systematic approach is taken to identify the medium, motivation and tools for spreading fake news in the new media. The results of this study make it possible to systematize existing theoretical developments in the field of digital media and society studies based on the uses and gratification theory and social media to understand audience's perceptions. Then to find out audience's preference in getting information in a crisis period like COVID-19 pandemic, etc. Thus, dissertation research makes a particular contribution to the development of digital media and society, digital literacy, journalism, philology, semiology, and communication.

The practical significance of this work is also determined by its interdisciplinary nature and, consequently, of great practical benefit to experts who study the impact fake news on digital media in a crisis, its impact on journalist practice, digital communication process and new media users' behaviour in infodemic. Therefore, the results of this study should be taken into account by the national governments and journalist professional communities for elaborating digital literacy education programs to protect the nations against fake news distribution. It is can be used in the development of special courses in digital communication, new media technology, political communication, sociology of communication, the basics of mass information processing, semiology, and mass communication. It can also be useful for journalists,

philologists, political scientists, sociologists, and representatives of other relevant humanitarian disciplines.

Methodology and research methods rely on a mix of quantitative and qualitative approaches, which involve observation, interpretation, systematization, and classification to process the results. The basis of the methodology is formed, taking into account the main requirements for this kind of research, which are formulated in the philosophy of science and scientific research methodology. Applied research methods ensure established scientific problems and solid evidence of propositions and hypotheses put forward for the defence. A questionnaire was distributed among 537 respondents from Indonesian community groups over 12 years of age from various regions. Series of in-depth interviews were conducted as well with members of the House of Representatives in the field of communication and information, with Chief leader of online media in Indonesia, with Senior Military and defence observers and Chair of the institution, with Social Network Analysis in April - May 2021.

Provisions for the Defense:

• Fake news is one of the most effective tools to manipulate public opinion with false information in the Post-Truth era.

• Peculiarities of fake news in a digital world tell on the formation of its typological characteristics as well as on traditional and new media functioning.

• Contemporary Journalism is the most dependent subject of Infodemic spread distribution in a Digital World.

• The functioning of fake news on global and Indonesian media platforms is characterized by special features of micro targeting.

• Fake news channels have a huge impact on contemporary Indonesian society, especially the younger generation.

• The uniqueness of Indonesia's experience in combating the spread of fakes is a relevant platform for the international community both in studying

the experience of countering the infodemic and in terms of sustainable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research hypothesis. The author suggests that during the period of a communicative crisis, the audience does not behave passively, but actively integrates the media into their daily lives, using the media to meet their communication needs. Notably, media consumption during the pandemic is markedly different from pre-COVID-19, confirming the tendency of respondents to turn to social media as a way to fill their free time during lockdown. When communication needs are satisfied, users, as a rule, return to the information source that satisfied their curiosity. During the infodemic caused by the spread of COVID-19, when fake news and the use of artificial intelligence (AI) affect the consolidation of a sustainable virtual community, making it difficult to understand the truth or falsehood of information, content users have an additional motivation to seek alternative sources of information, regardless of the quality of the information they provide. Only the cooperation of national governments with professional journalistic communities can lead to the development of digital literacy programs for the population and can be extremely useful as an effective new means of protecting society from fakes. We used a number of scientific methods to test the hypothesis put forward and solve the tasks set.

The dissertation author's independent contribution is to enrich the limitations of the methodological horizon of fake news as a phenomenon based on the concept of Post-Truth with a new approach that sees the audience as a subject capable of interpreting its choice in a favour of either verified news or fakes:

• The concept of the emergence, dissemination and detection of fake news during the communication crisis has been analyzed and significantly supplemented.

• The features of the functioning of fake news in the new conditions of the political and economic crisis, as well as during the period of the infodemic caused by COVID-19 are revealed.

• The position put forward by the author of the study that the audience is not passive, but actively integrates media into their daily lives, allowed us to successfully test and confirm the relevance of the concept of "Information Disorder" for communication crises.

• A study by the author shows that the Indonesian audience consumes fake news daily through the main digital distribution channels ten times more than through traditional media.

• Media consumption in the current environment is markedly different from pre-COVID-19 and reflects the conscious or unconscious tendency of respondents to turn to media platforms as a way to fill extra time during lockdown to create a kind of stability by meeting communication needs during an infodemic.

• The author's research makes more obvious the impact of the artificial intelligence (AI) system on the final decision making of social network users.

• This analysis comprehensively revealed the scale and impact of the infodemic on Indonesian perceptions of both the overall COVID-19 pandemic and the effectiveness of vaccines already developed.

The degree of reliability and approbation of the results is provided by a systematic approach to the analysis of the problems posed, by referring to the expert assessments of foreign, Russian and Indonesian specialists, using a variety of scientific research methods, as well as a representative empirical base consisting of a wide range documents about fake news functioning, administrative sources, and includes reports from international and regional anti-fake organizations, documents in the form of statements and speeches by officials, contains statistical sources, literature reviews and various expert studies over the past 10 years, as well as a number of archival data on the topic

from sites such as policyfact.com, factcheck.org, turnbackhoax.id and others. Comprehensively analysed 385 materials selected from 3,000 sources, conducted quantitative and qualitative research on the behaviour of consumers of digital content in Indonesia. The presence of a wide range of sources in English, Indonesian and Russian has made it possible to conduct a systematic study of the topic. Research references include 265 titles: directories and regulatory documents, dissertations and abstracts, books and articles in English, Indonesian, and Russian, online and offline resources. The main results of the study were presented at seminars and lectures of the Department of Mass Communications - "Mass Media Sociology" and "Media Economics" of the Philological Faculty of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), and international scientific conferences in Indonesia, Great Britain and USA, including ICA (International Communication Association). The main results and conclusions of the research are in 16 scientific publications: three articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals included in RUDN University List, two articles are in publications included in Scopus and six articles are in publications included in international citation databases Web of Science.

List of works published by the author on the topic of the dissertation:

• Fake news on COVID-19 in Indonesia [Text]/ Muzykant V.L., Muqsith M.A., Pratomo R.R., Barabash V.V. // In: Berube D.M. (ed.) Pandemic Communication and Resilience. Risk, Systems and Decisions. Springer, Cham. 2021. pp. 363-378.

• Трамп, Твиттер и фейковые новости (Trump, Twitter and Fake news) [Text]/ Muqsith M.A., Pratomo, R.R., Muzykant V.L. // Jurnal Cita Hukum. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Jakarta. - 2021. - Vol. 9. - No. 3. - pp. 591-614. (Web of Science).

• Trump's Twitter Propaganda During COVID-19 [Text]/ Muqsith M.A., Kuswanti A., Pratomo R.R., Muzykant V.L. // Jurnal The Messenger.

USM Semarang. - 2021. - Vol. 13. - No. 3. - pp. 223-237. (Web of Science).

• Fake news as a Tool to Manipulate the Public with False Information [Text] / Muqsith M.A., Pratomo R.R., Zaina A.G, Kuswanti A. // Proceedings of the 2nd International Indonesia Conference on Interdisciplinary Studies (IICIS). UNILA Lampung. - 2021. - pp. 118-127. (Web of Science).

• Social Consequences of the 2020 Regional Elections in Indonesia under the COVID-19 Pandemic [Text] / Muzykant V.L., Muqsith M.A. // Bulletin of the Peoples' Friendship the University of Russia " Journal of Sociology". -2021. - Vol. 21. - No. 3. - pp. 536-542. (BAK).

• Contemporary Transportation Applications as New Forms of Social Construction Technology [Text] / Muzykant V.L., Muqsith M.A., E. Y. Burdovskaya, E.Y., Palagina I.Y., Barabash V.V., Volkova I.I. // 2021 Fifth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). London. - 2021. - pp. 6-11. (Scopus).

• Social Solidarity Movement to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19 [Text] / Muqsith M.A, Pratomo R. R., Kuswanti A., Muzykant V.L. // Jurnal Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik. UNAIR Surabaya. - 2021. -Vol. 34. - No. 2. - pp. 147-158 (Web of Science).

• Media Discourse of Roots Causes and Security Perspectives on Climate Change [Text] / Muqsith M.A., Muzykant V.L., Pratomo R. R., Setiawan R. // International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies. -2021. - Vol. 23. - No. 1. - pp. 300-310.

• Media Discourse Comparative Analysis of Trump's Speech in Daily Kompas dan Gazeta.ru [Text] / Muqsith M.A, Muzykant V.L, Kuswanti A, Setiawan R.// International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding. Hamburg. - 2021. - Vol. 8. - No. 1. - pp. 218-226.

• Media Educational Approach to Climate Change News Agenda in Russia [Text] / Muzykant V.L, Muqsith M.A// Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). - 2020. - Vol. 60. - No. 1. - pp. 166-178. (ВАК).

• Effect of Group Participative Communication Towards Pekka Economic Empowerment [Text] / Kuswanti A, Saleh A, Puspitawati H, Muqsith M.A, Muzykant V.L // International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. - 2020. - Vol. 23. - No. 3. - pp. 238-249. (Scopus).

• Effect Fake news for Democracy [Text] / Muqsith M.A., Muzykant V.L. // Jurnal Cita Hukum. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Jakarta. - 2019. - Vol. 7. - No. 3. - pp. 307-318. (Web of Science).

• Cyberprotest: new media and the new social movement in Indonesia [Text] / Muqsith M.A., Muzykant V.L., Kuzmenkova K.E. // Bulletin of the Peoples' Friendship the University of Russia. Series "Literary criticism. Journalism". - 2019. -Vol. 24. - No. 4. - pp. 765-775. (BAK).

• The Impact of Regulation Policy in Indonesia Againt Women's Family Head [Text] / Kuswanti A, Saleh A, Hubeis, A.V.S., Puspitawati H, Muqsith M.A. // Jurnal Cita Hukum. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Jakarta. -2019. - Vol. 8. -No. 1. - pp. 103-122. (Web of Science).

• How New Media Becomes a Platform for Public Participation [Text]/ Muqsith M.A., Muzykant V.L. // Средства массовой коммуникации в многополярном мире: проблемы и перспективы. Материалы X Всероссийской научно-практической конференции. - M. РУДН. 2019. - С. 400.

• The Use of Hashtag in the Political Campaign [Text] / Muqsith M.A. // Средства массовой коммуникации в многополярном мире: проблемы и перспективы. Материалы IX Всероссийской научно-практической конференции. - M. РУДН. 2018. - С. 352.

Volume and the structure of the thesis. The structure is determined by the purpose and logic of the material's presentation, aimed at testing the hypothesis and solving the tasks outlined. The dissertation consists of an introduction, two chapters, six paragraphs, a conclusion, a glossary, a list of references and applications.

Заключение диссертации по теме «Журналистика», Мукситх Мунадхил Абдул


1. The emergence of fake news as a tool to manipulate the public with false information has become one of the most discussed topics in public and scientific discourse in recent years while false, sensational information disseminated under the guise of news reporting content in social media ignoring rational considerations. Fake news peculiarities in a digital world make a much more impact on digital media functioning than traditional channels of news distribution. Based on our search through Google Scholars from 2017 - 2021 using the search word 'Fake news, etc., we found out 81.600 articles on 'Fake news, 51.100 articles on 'Misinformation'; 26.900 articles on Disinformation; 184,000 articles on 'Mal-information'; 20.400 articles on 'Hoax'; and 8.800 articles on 'Infodemic'. This means that this topic is interesting for the public and scholars from various scientific fields, especially since Internet technology is getting faster and smartphones are getting more sophisticated. Negative influence on public confidence is more vivid in political issues, health, science, intercultural understanding, and one's skills status.

The nature and specifications of fake news can explain how accurate the news is in describing an event. Internet and smartphone technology allows information to be accessed by other users from various countries. The faster the Internet and the sophistication of smartphones, the more new media technology applications are being accessed. Social media that continues to grow is ideal for the spread of disinformation campaigns and the spread of misinformation. The term 'promotion' to audiences or media users, commercial advertising in the media are the ways to spread fake news. Certain actors are promoting on fake news sites for a specific purpose. While posts in any medium can be considered biased to some extent, what sets fake news campaigns apart is that they are often based on non-existent facts and often use shocking clickbait headlines to attract

readers. To manipulate the public, fake news creators will take advantage of fake content, such as using articles that make no sense, complete with factual and sensational titles. As to the content of fake news, misinformation, disinformation is nothing new. The term itself has entered not only scientific discourse but also even everyday conversation, being used not only in an attempt to expose false information but also in an attempt to demonize traditional news organizations. Therefore, it is important to understand the concept of fake news. This extraordinary effort will enable a systematic study of what makes individuals believe in fake news and how it affects public discourse.

Contemporary forms and typology of fake news of the mainstream media's role as agents in amplifying (intentionally or not) fabricated or misleading content is critical to understanding information disorder. Fact-checking has always been the basis for quality journalism, but the techniques used by con artists and those trying to spread disinformation have never been more sophisticated. With newsrooms increasingly relying on the social web for story ideas and content, forensic verification skills and the ability to identify news websites' networks and fabricated bots are becoming more important than ever. After Warden C. and Derakhshan D.H. report on Information Disorder, a new category of 'mal-information' was added to the classification. Namely, information based on reality but aimed to harm other people, organizations, or countries, like spreading personal data in cyberspace. Mal-information like this - such as true information that violates a person's privacy without justifying the public interest - is against journalism's standards and ethics. The point is that narrative is present in the news, including disinformation, misinformation, and mal-information. Therefore, the narrative is embedded in what facts are chosen to be highlighted in the news (or in what facts are fabricated or taken out of context is misleading communications). Crime news reports, which are not disinformation or the like, may find it relevant to mention the alleged race or nationality of the perpetrator and the victim. Perhaps the fact is that the suspected

robber was a migrant and a man, and the victim was a female citizen. Determining whether these things are important in the story is a function of the journalist's investigative power and, in particular, part of the ideology, perspective as well as narrative about the importance and effect that the journalist presents consciously or unconsciously. That is one reason why fact-checking can be advantageous when accompanied by "narrative uncovering", which examines the structure of meaning in which facts and non-facts are used for specific purposes.

2. Peculiarities of fake news functioning in the digital era, its existence can be detrimental and even dangerous. The development of technology, the Internet, and social media accelerated the spread of fake news to a higher level. Technology is growing on an exponential chart because of the innovations that are happening almost daily. The transformation of the Internet into general consumption has become a catalyst for many changes taking place in the world. Initially, the Internet was used as an intelligence medium, which became a tool in the Cold war. After the search engine Google and Facebook creation, the application can make it easier for people to connect and exchange ideas with others. Currently, people have at least one social media account. The range of its spread cannot be underestimated so that everyone becomes both a consumer and a producer of fake news. In addition to its very beneficial advantages, social media has also become fertile ground for the spread of fake news worldwide, thus catalyzing the formation of the Post-Truth era. The connection of the whole world to the Internet makes the world borderless. The news media is also moving online to reach a wider range of people. Social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Telegram make connecting everyone easily. The easier it is for people to create and distribute information, forgetting good journalistic principles. Information becomes difficult to verify because the flow of distribution moves very fast. Fake news is a digital phenomenon that filters information; otherwise, contemporary

journalism becomes the most dependent subject of Infodemic Spread distribution in a Digital World. When we play on social media, individuals often get information that is uniform with what they believe. For example, when we often search for information about Rohingya as one of the most persecuted stateless minorities in the world, the algorithm will begin to adjust according to what we are looking for. This effect is called filter bubbles. The general understanding is a digital phenomenon where there is a process of filtering information that is tailored to our thinking so that the algorithm will start working and provide the appropriate content. That is, a large — and ever-increasing — share of news consumers relies on algorithmically curated environments in which algorithms automatically select personalized news based on information about individual news consumers. It is called the Epistemic Bubbles. When the bubble filter filters information based on suitability and relevance as well as preferences, the echo chamber takes it into a homogenizing form of information.

The point is that the individual only gets information according to what he believes. In other words, the echo chamber is the individual's own intervention. People tend to seek justification for their views so that it makes them look for information that supports their beliefs. The impact of filter bubbles and echo chambers is still not visible because there are many factors at play. However, when someone consumes news that is filtered according to his or her preferences, one individual will have a different perspective. This difference in reading content affects their perception of something. For example, in Indonesia, the Jokowi and Prabowo camps, who have the right perspective about Indonesia, prefer the candidates they support. Thus, the Us vs. Them dichotomy emerged. A clear example is when in Indonesia the photo poses one finger, it is assumed to support the number one candidate pair. We analyzed as well the evolution of fakes from fake news to deepfake. The Deepfake program uses Google's image search, explores social media websites, and then, on its own, enters data to

replace the faces in videos almost flawlessly. Deepfake is not only in the form of video but also in images, sound, etc. Microsoft once created an image of a world-famous artist, namely Rembrandt, using 3D printing technology combined with an algorithm. This phenomenon calls ectypes. It has a subtle meaning that is quite useful here: an ectype is a copy, yet not any copy, but rather a copy that has a special relationship with its source (the origin of its creation), the archetype. Deepfakes can be used for both positive and negative purposes. Technology is neutral, depending on its use. However, that does not mean there are not potential solutions to detect and protect us from deepfakes. Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) found a number of potential solutions that can be used independently or combined, each with different technical requirements regarding robustness, scalability, performance, interoperability, or privacy.

3. Discipline in the verification in Journalism practice is mandatory in the Post-Truth era. Fake news is a phenomenon based on the concept of Post-Truth with a new approach that sees the audience as a subject capable of interpreting its choice in favour of either verified news or fakes. Nevertheless, the new communication and interconnection technology revolution in the 21st century substantially changes the power of traditional mass media and the media landscape. Research by the Reuters Institute and the University of Oxford in 2018 among prominent editors, CEOs, and digital industry leaders found that almost half of respondents were worried about the power and influence of the new media platforms. New media is becoming an increasingly popular medium of interaction and various new interactions, a combination of information and communication technology (ICT) with a related social context bringing together three elements: technological tools and artefacts; the activities, practices, and uses, and the social arrangements and organizations that form around these tools and practices. News media also make speared fake news faster and more mass distribution. The communication technology revolution forces media convergence to occur. Media convergence refers to the process of combining

media technology, industry, content, and audiences. In essence, it refers to technology, digitization, and computer networks. This is also known as technological convergence. The convergence of technology consists of audio and visuals until discovering the Internet, which continues to grow almost indefinitely, which then became one of the triggers for the emergence of media convergence. Internet technology has received a very positive response from the public and has become one of the primary needs of media industry entrepreneurs. Convergence in journalism makes public information much easier for distribution, faster without time and space limitations. On the other hand, media convergence poses its own challenges in social structures. The growth of technology at an extraordinary speed causes information gaps in society. Fake news is one of the most effective tools to fill up the gaps with false information in the Post-Truth era. Not everyone has ready and affordable access to digital media or the skills to employ it. Post-Truth is an awareness that the definition or concept of Truth is questionable. From this fact, two things characterize the development of information technologies in the Post-Truth era. First, the community's distrust of traditional elites is reduced so that pro-people leaders emerge as populist figures because every candidate wants to win the election.

The second thing is that technological developments have fuelled the rise of false news. Some of the major events that have awakened us indirectly show the impact of new media in the structure of people's lives recently. The Internet revolution and communication media technology are exponentially increasing the transmission of information dissemination. Media convergence became a business strategy in which communication companies integrate their ownership of different media properties to save production costs as well as pose their own challenges in social structures. The rapid change in digital formats and the sheer amount of data available has created cybercrime opportunities. This includes concerns about the storage, preservation, and protection of matters deemed important for public records. Digital content can be copied, modified, and

circulated very easily. The potential for the news in traditional and social media varies according to their scale, relations with officials. Radio, TV, and print media focus on city news, while social media often addresses other areas and local issues before they become widespread in traditional media. Hence, nowadays, in the scope of contemporary journalism, discipline in verification is a big issue. Post-Truth is often associated with political phenomena, especially general elections. This claim is not wrong. The election is a matter of contestation about who occupies the highest position in a country, province, city, or district. This is why the massive spread of fake news about politics on various media channels is so massive. The emergence of social media has become an effective messenger to the public regardless of right or wrong. The dissemination of messages through social media is not judged based on the accuracy of facts but rather the novelty. One of the challenges in the era of media convergence is Blur information in the journalism industry: more news comes from second and third hands. The researcher identified the potential of media and social networks for creating fakes, varying: depending on the scale of the news - the main events are well covered in traditional media, and social networks often report natural disasters; from relations with officials - news about the government and companies "merge" to journalists; from regional news - traditional media focuses on urban news, while social networks cover other areas; from community issues - local issues that are not given due attention often surface through social media before they are widely disseminated in traditional media. Hence, in the midst of information overload, the issue of verification discipline becomes a challenge for journalists. There is only one concept to guide the search for Truth. Scientists, legal practitioners, professional intellectuals, and journalists all over the world as well as in Indonesia share a basic definition of what "Truth" means.

4. When the President of a superpower like the U.S. becomes an actor who engages in fake news through his statements, it is at least unethical. Social media makes it possible to connect one person to another, they only need to use the

follow or subscribe feature on various social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram. Accordingly, political leaders may not be able to solely achieve their goal by having social media access on one or many platforms, but rather by increasing their reliance on strongly interconnected networks of citizens by commenting, promoting, and discussing their original messages, directly participating in the profound dissemination of these populist ideas. The advantages of social media are expressing their opinions in various forms, such as liking posts and photos, commenting on updates, sharing comments on other postings, expressing their opinions anonymously, and criticizing others. The digital world, especially on social media, has become a source of accurate and fake information. Donald Trump's social media followers and subscribers were used as a weapon to spread fake news by his campaign team. Ex-President's Twitter positioned himself on the side of a society that had been disappointed by the elite's detrimental policies managing to reach more than 22 million people.

During presidential campaign, Trump made false statements triple as much compared to fake stories released by Hillary Clinton's camp. In this way, Trump has become a fake news aggregator. As to the spread of fakes, populism rejects the truth of the mainstream media and emphasizes that the truth is in movements or outlets that dare to oppose power. It gives credibility to the alternative media no matter whether the source of information is clear so that some fabricated news gets a good response. In the process of the analysis, the author uses a typology from the European Council Report: satire or parody, misleading content, fabricated content, manipulated content, false context, false connection, and imposter content. These typologies fall into three broad categories: misinformation, disinformation, and mal-information. The U.S. Expresident D. Trump often made statements that tend to disinformation and misinformation with quite a balanced number of both (totally 15 for disinformation and 14 for misinformation cases) with the aim to raise his

reputation as the leader his people want. The result is that less than half of Americans were made to believe that traditional media is about misinformation, and up to 2/3 of Americans believe that social media distribute misinformation. However, for both groups, the value as the mainstream media's perception is to be guardians of the truth, i.e., they can correct fake news circulating. Besides it, they consider fake news as a more dangerous threat than climate change and even terrorism. Fake news and political agenda setting on Twitter are spontaneous or deliberate engineering; objectivity is rare when talking about Donald Trump. His interpretation is more subjective to fit what is believed. Additionally, most Americans say fake news affects their level of confidence in government and affects the level of trust in others. Hence, this becomes a danger when objective facts are put aside to endanger society. We conclude if the leader of a state promotes fictional news rather than facts, it could be fatal.

5. The similarity of the Indonesian Experience with global trends during COVID-19 fake news spreading is evident: power political motives justifying any means for achieving the goal; organized spread of fakes by hoax makers and spreaders as well as lacking social awareness in selecting various information obtained through social media. Besides it, there is an abusive key opinion leaders' behaviour affects the society as fakes becoming a promising business for money-makers by generating clicks. At the same time, the results of the research on the perception of Indonesians towards the COVID-19 pandemic showed some peculiarities: Indonesia is one of the countries with the largest number of youngest average population, where generation Z and millennials demonstrate the highest daily time spending on new media. While defining the roots of fake news and specific of its functioning in Indonesia, we conclude the COVID-19 pandemic creates a resilient virtual community in the country. Furthermore, the respondents between the ages of 16-28 happened to be more 'addicted' to Instagram than before - the pandemic reflected using Facebook more frequently during infodemic. The study of randomly selected 537

Indonesian respondents showed the leading position in fake news distribution belongs to Social Media (33.1%) and online chat application WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Telegram (29.6%) while only one out of ten of those surveyed was receiving information from the traditional media. All respondents face fakes with different intensity - more than once per day 9.1%, every day 20.7%, once in a week 41%, etc. Nevertheless, most Indonesians detect breaking news as fakes in case of unclear source or «felt something strange with it» (65.5% and 24%, respectfully). However, more than a half of them stayed «quiet» while retaining from discussing the nature of fakes. After detecting fakes, every second respondent applies for searching the answer rather from Google than to traditional or social media or to someone who can give a «proper answer».

The vast majority of Indonesians understands that fakes spread intentionally in a different forms of old news, photos, videos posted, mostly focusing on government, politics, politicians, ethnicity, health, religion and disasters. More than a half of respondents express alarm and serious concern about the COVID-19 virus while the fifth part of them does not consider the epidemic as «something unusual». The number of those who believes in a positive effect of vaccination and those keeping neutral position is almost equal (38%, 41.9%, respectfully). In our opinion, the position of "neutrals" was badly influenced by a high proportion of COVID-19 fakes (85.3%) received from digital sphere with quite a minimal influence of traditional media. We conclude that new media took an upper hand over traditional media in fake news distribution ten times as much. Our respondents with Bachelor and Master's degree, Postgraduate as well as High school college students named fake news as deliberate (70.9%) or inaccurate (20.1%) or inciting (6%), while «I don't know» option was chosen by 1.49%. Respondents irrespectively of their professional status - government or private employees, entrepreneurs, students, unemployment - claimed that media use during the pandemic was somewhat

different from pre-COVID-19 period. They confirmed that a conscious or unconscious trend towards media platforms acted as a way to fill in an extra time during the lockdown and create resilience by satisfying their communication needs during infodemic.

6. Prerequisites of fake news appearance on the Indonesian media platforms obtain some very specific features as well. The debates to date have tended to focus solely on fictional text news pages, but visual content is also widespread and harder to identify and argue with. Hence, the most of the respondents detected fake news in a form of online writing materials as the most appropriate for fakes spread. They were followed as to respondents' answers by old news/photos/videos and photos with fake captions, videos cut into pieces, photo edits, and fake video dubbing the original, etc. Moreover traditional media as a channel for distributing the fakes was used very rarely. Overwhelming majority of the respondents found Faking News to be very annoying, especially in the topics of government/politics, financial fraud; information containing SARA (ethnic, religion, race and intergroup); sad news/info; health; employment information; socio-cultural news, etc. Interviews with Indonesian experts in the Political Literacy as well as CEOs in digital and communication confirmed the undertaken massive attempts to form prerequisites for creation a misinformation reality with a further aim to shape public opinion. Thus, all the respondents received fakes regarding COVID-19 Pandemic as a part of the infodemic campaign formed two largest equal groups of those with neutral and supportive position towards antiviral measures, with 7.4% disagreed with the usefulness of antiviral vaccines. Almost a half of respondents chose social media for obtaining information about COVID-19, which is twice as much as the information received from online media. An equal number of respondents chose WhatsApp/ Facebook as a platform to get information about COVID-19 while only one out of ten applied to the government website. Traditional media was chosen by 5.2% of those surveyed.

It is noteworthy that handling the coronavirus pandemic in Indonesia received international recognition. The experience of the Indonesian Anti-Defamation Society (MAFINDO) is of great value and help. MAFINDO as a grassroots community aims to campaign against fake news via creating a form of netizens' resistance to dishonesty and injustice in social media, which happened to be ten times more popular than the Indonesian government website. If in 2021, they detected more than two thousand fakes, only in January 2022 they detected about two hundred and fifty via hoax classification method, using such criteria as severity and urgency. CekFakta.com played a role in popularizing the fact-checking activities and emphasized the collective awareness of all fact-checkers in Indonesia while MAFINDO provides technology resources via content management system (CMS) called Yudistira, which played a role in popularizing the fact-checking activities. Because of implementing 'Just in time' digital literacy education programs, Indonesia's ranking in Nikkei's during COVID-19 Pandemic jumped from 41 up from 54. All provinces in Indonesia are at the level of community transmission level accordingly to WHO assessment. As of November 8, 2021, government data shows only 0.23% of people have tested positive for COVID-19. Meanwhile, the daily COVID-19 patient mortality rate is currently 3.38 %, and the cure rate is 96.93 %.

7. The key is a good collaboration in handling COVID-19 among the Indonesian government, the media, the community, etc. This spirit must continue to be maintained and strengthened so that efforts to comply with health protocols become a habit in the new normal period and efforts to continue to suppress false information about COVID-19. According to the achieved results, the government may be appropriate by centralizing all information in the central government's hands in Indonesia, especially those related to economic, social, political, and legal policies. We presumed that the changing pattern of engagement on different media platforms before and during the pandemic lies in

the different gratuities gained from using different digital media, where shifting patterns or practices is a way to achieve maximum gratification so that resilience during the Pandemic. In cases of fake news spreading to their inner circle, people tend to believe what news they tell friends is accurate, so they are willing to pass it on to others. However, if, after being verified, it turns out to be Fake news, it can destroy trust, and the person who shared it will, at the extreme point, be removed from the WhatsApp group. The collapse of trust creates a sceptical society, which tends to have critical thinking while checking the truth of a story. Hence, this scepticism is needed to filter out fake news entries instead of creating a climate of trust among the people. People will be more suspicious of others, so it is difficult to create trust among fellow social circles. Collected data survey and interviewed experts confirmed the trend of shifting in the prevalence of Indonesian people to obtain the most information through the Internet and social media. Meanwhile, traditional media is in much less demand. Based on the results of this study, we found social media as the largest distributor fakes (over 60%), then online chat applications like WhatsApp, Facebook messenger, Telegram (30.5%). During the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, nine out of ten respondents received false or infodemic information, which they confirmed, caused the community to divide. Seven out of ten respondents believe COVID-19 is very dangerous, 22% admitted it as «normal», 8.8% named it as «exaggeration», and only 1.9% of respondents responded as «Don't know». Half of the respondents believed in antiviral vaccines, while one out ten disagreed and strongly disagreed with those suggestions.

Indonesia may be classified as relatively late in responding to fake news spreading in the beginning of pandemic spread, and government officials were not in accord with effective policies, resulting in confusing information about the policy itself. The public consumed almost two fake news stories about COVID-19 during January-June 2020. Seeing this, the government and the Indonesian professional communities responded quickly by making various fact-

verification efforts to accurately reach the public in spite of massive fakes spread with 85% of confirmed infodemic messages. All key informants also reinforced that it was true that the spread of the infodemic was quite massive and as dangerous as the spread of COVID-19. The circulation of such conspiracy issues causes the community to divide. Trust as the foundation or basis of every good relationship between humans is seriously threatened. The dissemination of original information to maintain a well-informed population is chaotic. Often humans make decisions after obtaining information; if the information is found to be wrong, or the facts are exaggerated or distorted, it can lead to making poor decisions even to the extent of being detrimental.

Our research coincides with the general global trends regarding the fake news problem, and we confirm that infodemic resilience is the ability of communication systems to recover from drastic change. Fake news is a complicated problem in society, requires professional communities to educate publics and verify information, participating in increasing public understanding of how dangerous fake news is. Our research hypothesis that during communication crisis, the audience does not behave passively, but actively integrates the media into their daily lives, utilizing media to satisfy their inspirations or needs has been proven. Moreover during COVID-19, when fake news and AI affect the consolidation of a sustainable virtual community, making it more difficult to understand the truth or falsehood of information, content users have an additional motivation to seek alternative sources of information, regardless of the quality of the information they provide. The results of the research confirm that in the Post-Truth era, fake news can only be countered by a good cooperation among the government, the public, the media, and various other parties.

Список литературы диссертационного исследования кандидат наук Мукситх Мунадхил Абдул, 2022 год


Literature in English

1. Abbasi A, Zhang Z, Zimbra D, Chen H., & Nunamaker Jr J. F. (2010), "Detecting Fake Websites: The Contribution of Statistical Learning Theory," MIS Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 3, p. 435-461.

2. ABC, 02.05.2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-02/cia-live-tweets-killing-of-osama-bin-laden-five-years-on/7374524. [Accessed 20.10.2020].

3. ABC, 11.07.2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.abc.net.au/mediawatch/episodes/the-perils-of-speed-before-accuracy/9980876. [Accessed 01.11.2020].

4. Akgul H. (2019), "Fake news as a Tool of Populism in Turkey: The Pastor Andrew Branson Case," Polish Political Science Review., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 32-51.

5. Albright J. (2017), "Welcome to the Era of Fake news," Media and Communication, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 87-89.

6. Aldrete G. S. (2011), History of the Ancient World: A Global Perspective, Virginia: The Great Courses.

7. Aljazeera, 27.04.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/4/27/iran-over-700-dead-after-drinking-alcohol-to-cure-coronavirus. [Accessed 01.01.2021].

8. Allcott H., and Gentzkow M. (2017), "Social Media and Fake news in the 2016 Election," Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 211-36.

9. Anderson J., & Rainie L., 21.02.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.pewresearch.org/Internet /2020/02/21/concerns-about-democracy-in-the-digital-age/. [Accessed 05.01.2021].

10. Arbar T. F., 11 03 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20210311092122-4-229421/geger-pemenggalan-guru-prancis-hasil-kebohongan-ini-faktanya... [Accessed 10.04.2021].

11. Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jasa Internet Indonesia - (APJII), 09.11.2020. [Online]. Available: https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2020/11/11/jumlah-pengguna-Internet -di-indonesia-capai-1967-juta. [Accessed 28.04.2021].

12. Atwater R. (1961), Procopius: Secret History, New York: MI: University of Michigan Press.

13. Baines D., & Elliott, R. J. (2020), "Defining misinformation, disinformation and malinformation: An urgent need for clarity during the COVID-19 infodemic." Discussion Papers, 20(06), pp. 20-06.

14. Barbera P., et al. (2015), "Tweeting from Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More Than an Echo Chamber," Psychological Science, pp. 1-12.

15. Barclay D. A. (2018), "Fake news, Propaganda, and Plain Old Lies: How to Find Trustworthy Information in the Digital Age,". London: Rowman & Littlefield.

16. Barua Z., et al. (2020), "Effects of misinformation on COVID-19 individual responses and recommendations for resilience of disastrous consequences of misinformation," Progress in Disaster Science, vol. 8, pp. 100-119.

17. Bastos M.T., and Mercea D. (2020), "The Brexit Botnet and User-Generated Hyperpartisan News," Social Science Computer Review, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 38-54, 2019.

18. Bates S., and Meikle Y.J, 16.11.2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2010/nov/16/prince-william-kate-middleton-engagement. [Accessed 04.12.2021].

19. BBC, 06.09.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-41174069. [Accessed 25.12.2020].

20. BBC, 24.06.2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36574526. [Accessed 09.10.2020].

21. BBC, 27.05.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-52815552. [Accessed 01.01.2021].

22. BBC, 29.07.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-40762796. [Accessed 29.10.2020].

23. Beaumont-Thomas B., 29.04.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/music/2020/apr/29/jay-z-files-takes-action-against-deepfakes-of-him-rapping-hamlet-and-billy-joel. [Accessed 05.01.2021].

24. Bergmann E. (2020), "Populism and the Politics of Misinformation," The Journal of South African And American Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 251-265.

25. Bevins V., "washingtonpost.com," 30.09.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/09/30/in-indonesia-the-fake-news-that-fueled-a-cold-war-massacre-is-still-potent-five-decades-later/?utm_termv. [Accessed 02.02.2020].

26. Blank G., & Reisdorf B.C. (2012), "The Participatory Web, A user perspective on Web 2.0 " Information, Communication & Society, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 537-554.

27. Bozdag E., & Van den Hoven J. (2015), "Breaking the Filter Bubble: Democracy and Design," Ethics Information Technology, vol. 17, pp. 249-265.

28. Bramasta D., 20.03.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2020/03/20/155009765/viral-unggahan-dettol-disebut-bisa-bunuh-virus-corona-ini-faktanya?page=all. [Accessed 10.10.2020].

29. Breland A, 15.03.2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2019/03/deepfake-gabon-ali-bongo/. [Accessed 10.01.2021].

30. Bridgman, A., et al. (2021). "Infodemic Pathways: Evaluating the Role That Traditional and Social Media Play in Cross-National Information Transfer." Front. Polit. Sci, 3, 648646.

31. Buccoliero L., et al. (2018), "Twitter and Politics: Evidence from the US Presidential Elections 2016," Journal of Marketing Communications, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 88-114.

32. Bungin B. (2006), Sosiologi Komunikasi, Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group. (In Indonesian)

33. Burkhardt J. (2017), "History of Fake news," in Combating Fake news in the Digital Age, ALA TechSource, an imprint of the American Library Association, pp. 5-9.

34. Bushuyev, S., Bushuiev, D., & Bushuieva, V. (2020). Project management during Infodemic of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Innovative Technologies and Scientific Solutions for Industries, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 13-21.

35. Carlsson U. (2019), Understanding Media and Information Literacy (MIL) in the Digital Age, Göteborg: UNESCO Chair on Freedom of Expression.

36. Carr N., 26.01.2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/01/26/donald-trump-twitter-addiction-216530/. [Accessed 07.01.2021].

37. Central Bureau of Statistics. (2020), "Indonesian Youth Statistics 2020," Central Bureau of Statistics, Jakarta.

38. Christopher N., 02.02.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.vice.com/en/article/jgedjb/the-first-use-of-deepfakes-in-indian-election-by-bjp. [Accessed 16.02.2021].

39. Clayton J., 05.05.2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-56989500. [Accessed 20.05.2021].

40. Coll S., 03.12.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/12/11/donald-trumps-fake-news-tactics. [Accessed 04.01.2021].

41. Corner J. (2017), "Fake news, Post-Truth, and Media-Political Change," Media Culture & Society, vol. 39, no. 7, p. 1100-1107.

42. Crawford K., 18.01.2017. [Online]. Available: https://news.stanford.edu/2017/01/! 8/stanford-study-examine s-fake-news-2016-presidential-election/. [Accessed 09.02.2021].

43. Damrosch L. (1992), Jonathan Swift His Life and His World, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

44. Darnton R., "NYR Daily (blog)," 13.02.2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2017/02/13/the-true-history-of-fake-news/. [Accessed 02.02.2020].

45. De Sola Pool I. (1985), "Technologies of Freedom," JSTOR, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 231235.

46. Denchak M., 19.02.2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.nrdc.org/stories/paris-climate-agreement-everything-you-need-know. [Accessed 01.03.2021 ].

47. DePrang E., "The Atlantic," 21.03.2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/03/baghdad-bob-and-his-ridiculous-true-predictions/274241/. [Accessed 10.01.2020].

48. Dimock M., & Gramlich J., 20.01.2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.pewresearch.org/2021/01/29/how-america-changed-during-donald-trumps-presidency/. [Accessed 05.04.2021].

49. Duffy A., Tandoc E., & Ling R. (2019), "Too Good to be True, Too Good Not to Share: The Social Utility of Fake news," Information, Communication & Society, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1965-1979.

50. Ecker U. et al., 12.11.2020. [Online]. Available: https://theconversation.com/how-trump-uses-twitter-to-distract-the-media-new-research-149847. [Accessed 14.02.2021].

51. Fallis D., & Mathiesen K. (2019), "Fake news is Counterfeit News," Inquiry, pp. 1-21.

52. Farooq G. (2018), "Politics of Fake news: how WhatsApp became a potent propaganda tool in India. Media Watch. vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 106-117.

53. Fauzi A.I., et al. (2019), The Handbook Against Incitement to Hate. Center for the Study of Religion and Democracy, Paramadina Foundation for the Indonesian Anti-Defamation Society (MAFINDO). Retrieved on 01.12.2019 from https://www.MAFINDO.or.id/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Melawan-Hasutan-Kebencian-2019.pdf

54. Ferreira C.C., Robertson J. (2020), "How Many Likes are Good Enough? An Evaluation of Social Media Performance: An Abstract". In: Wu S., Pantoja F., Krey N. (eds) Marketing Opportunities and Challenges in a Changing Global Marketplace. AMSAC 2019. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-39165-2 71

55. Figueira A, and Oliveira L. (2017), "The current state of Fake news: challenges and opportunities," in CENTERIS - International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Barcelona.

56. FISPOL UGM, 15.09.2017. [Online]. Available: https://fisipol.ugm.ac.id/posisi-jurnalisme-di-era-digital/. [Accessed 14.02.2021].

57. Flanagin A.M.M. (2007), "The role of site features, user attributes, and information verification behaviors on the perceived credibility of web-based information," New Media & Society, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 319-342.

58. Floridi L. (2018), "Artificial Intelligence, Deepfakes and a Future of Ectypes," Philosophy Technology, pp. 1-5.

59. Fraga-Lamas P., et al. (2021), "Fake news, Disinformation, and Deepfakes: Leveraging Distributed Ledger Technologies and Blockchain to Combat Digital Deception Counterfeit Reality," merging Technology (INCET) 2nd International Conference for, pp. 1-7.

60. Friedman T. (2005), The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century, US: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

61. Fuchs C. (2011), "Web 2.0, Prosumption and Surveillance," Marketing, Consumption, and Surveillance, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 288-309.

62. Gallup, 15.01.2021. [Online]. Available: https://news.gallup.com/poll/203198/presidential-approval-ratings-donald-trump.aspx. [Accessed 04.03.2021].

63. Gallup, 19.01.2017. [Online]. Available: https://news.gallup.com/poll/116479/barack-obama-presidential-job-approval.aspx. [Accessed 04.02.2021].

64. Gazendam A. E. S., Wong E., Madden K., Naji L., Phillips M., Mundi R & Bhandari M. (2020), "The "Infodemic" of Journal Publication Associated with the Novel Coronavirus Disease," The Journal of bone and joint surgery, vol. 102, no. 13, p. e64.

65. Gema A., 03.05.2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2018/05/03/intellectual-property-rights-indonesia-can-win-the-war-on-online-piracy.html. [Accessed 14.01.2021].

66. Gore D., 22.05.2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.khou.com/article/news/nation-now/fact-check-trump-wrongly-blames-democrats-for-his-border-policy-of-separating-families/465-1d87a155-eb69-457a-985a-30c83d26745b. [Accessed 01.05.2021].

67. Greene J. (2013), Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and The Gap Between Us and Them, New York: The Penguin Press.

68. Gu L., et al. (2017), "The Fake news Machine How Propagandists Abuse the Internet and Manipulate the Public," A TrendLabs Research Paper.

69. Guo L., Rohde J.A., & Wu, H.D. (2016), "Who is Responsible for Twitter's Echo Chamber Problem? Evidence from 2016 U.S. Election," Networks. Information, Communication & Society, pp. 1-19.

70. Haffajee F., 02.08.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2017/06/05/ferial-haffajee-the-gupta-fake-news-factory-and-me_a_22126282/. [Accessed 01.10.2020].

71. Haim M., Graefe A., & Brosis H. (2017), "Burst of the Filter Bubble? Effects of Personalization on the Diversity of Google News," Digital Journalism, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-15.

72. Harari Y. N. (2018), 21st Lesson for 21st Century, New York: Spiegel & Grau.

73. Hendricks J., & Schill D. (2017), "The Social Media Election of 2016," in the 2016 US Presidential Campaign, London: Palgrave McMillan.

74. Herman E.S., Chomsky N. (2002), Manufacturing consent: The Political Economy of The Mass Media, New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

75. Hopkins S., "huffingtonpost," 22.06.2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/nigel-farages-eu-has-failed-us-all-poster-slammed-as-disgusting-by-nicola-sturgeon_uk_576288c0e4b08b9e3abdc483. [Accessed 01.10.2020].

76. Humphrey M., 08.02.2021. [Online]. Available: https://theconversation.com/i-analyzed-all-of-trumps-tweets-to-find-out-what-he-was-really-saying-154532. [Accessed 05.03.2021].

77. Ilyas U. (2020). Infodemic vs Pandemic: Role of social media. Rawal Med J, vol. 18, no. 45, pp. 500-501.

78. Impakter Editorial Board, 08.09.2017. [Online]. Available: https://impakter.com/eduardo-martins/. [Accessed 13.04.2021].

79. Indrati I., Fiati R., La M., & Aras M. (2018), "Challenges to Mass Media Posed by Convergence in the Indonesian Context," Global Media Journal.

80. Ireton, C., & Posetti, J. (2017), "Journalism, "Fake news" and disinformation: A handbook for journalism education and training. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization.

81. Irish Times, "Irishtimes," 26.12.2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/asia-pacific/fake-news-story-prompts-pakistan-to-issue-nuclear-threat-1.2917737. [Accessed 12.12.2020].

82. Islam M.S., et al. (2020), "COVID-19 Related Infodemic and Its Impact on Public Health: A Global Social Media Analysis," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, pp. 1621-1629.

83. Jack C. (2017), "Lexicon of lies: Terms for Problematic Information," Data & Society Logo.

84. Jackson C. (2018), "Fake news, Filter Bubbles, and Post-Truth Are Other People's Problems," Global Market Research and Public Opinion Specialist (IPSOS), Washington D.C.

85. Jacobson L., 07.05.2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/may/07/viral-image/fact checking-joe-biden-hunter-biden-and-ukraine/. [Accessed 09.02.2021].

86. Jamieson A., 11.01.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/11/trump-attacks-cnn-buzzfeed-at-press-conference. [Accessed 12.12.2020].

87. Jamieson K. H., et al. (2008), The Interplay of Influence: News, Advertising, Politics and The Mass Media, Belmont: Wadsworth.

88. Jenkins H., 19.06.2006. [Online]. Available: http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2006/06/welcome_to_convergence_culture.html. [Accessed 12.10.2020].

89. Johnstone J. W.C., et al. (1976.), The News People: A Sociological Portrait of American Journalists and Their Work. Chicago: IL: University of Illinois Press.

90. Joplin T., 08.05.2019. [Online]. Available:

https://www.albawaba.com/news/military-coup-gabon-inspired-potential-deepfake-video-our-political-future-1284760. [Accessed 11.12.2020]. 91. Juditha, C., & Darmawan, J. J. (2021) "Infodemic during the Pandemic: Analysis of the 2020 COVID-19 Hoax Map."Jurnal Pekommas, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 67-77.

92. Kalsnes B. (2021), "Fake news," Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication.

93. Karlova N.A., & Fisher K.E. (2013), "A social diffusion model of misinformation and disinformation for understanding human information behaviour," Information Research, vol. 18, no. 01, pp. 573.

94. Katz E. (1974), Utilization of mass communication by the individual. The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research.

95. Keith T., 11.01.2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.npr.org/2019/01/11/683920624/once-a-fence-later-slats-almost-always-a-wall-trumps-border-wall-contradictions. [Accessed 10.02.2021].

96. Kellner D. (2018), "Donald Trump and the Politics of Lying," in Post-Truth, Fake news, Singapore, Springer, pp. 89-100.

97. Kennedy S., 09.04.2011. [Online]. Available: https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/new-media-a-boon-for-insurgents-or-counterinsurgents. [Accessed 12.09.2020].

98. Kenway J. (1996), "The Information Superhighway and Post-Modernity: The Social Promise and the Social Price," Comparative Education, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 217-231.

99. Kershner J. W. (2005), The Elements of News Writing, Boston: MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.

100. Khabaristan today, 12.01.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/01/11/anthropologists-make-contact-with-remote-cut-off-tribe-still-thanking-raheelsharif/. [Accessed 10.03.2020].

101. Kim K., Yoo-Lee E., & Sin S. (2011), "Social media as information source: Undergraduates' use and evaluation behavior," Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 1, p. 48.

102. Knight Foundation. (2018), "Americans' Views of Misinformation in the News and How to Counteract it," Knight Foundation, Florida.

103. Kogan, S., Moskowitz, T. J., & Niessner, M. (2019). "Fake news: Evidence from financial markets,". Available at SSRN 3237763

104. Kopp C., Korb K.B., Mills B.I. (2018), "Information-theoretic models of deception: Modelling cooperation and diffusion in populations exposed to "Fake news". PLoS ONE. 13 (11): e0207383. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207383

105. Kovach B. and Rosenstiel T. (2012), Blur: How to Know What's True in the Age of Information Overload, USA: Bloomsbury USA.

106. Kovach B., et al. (2007), The Elements of Journalism: What News People Should Know and The Public Should Expect, New York: Three Rivers Press.

107. Kristiyono J., & Jayanti O.R, (2018) "Fake news (Hoax) and Paranoid Frame of Mind of Social Media User," Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Transformation in Communications 2017. Atlantis Press.

108. Kshetri, N., and Voas, J. (2017). The economics of "fake news". IT Professional, vol. 6, no.6, pp. 8-12.

109. Lang V. (2014), "Traditional Media versus New Media: A Case Study in the Karnataka Urbun and Rural Areas," International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 15-18.

110. Laskowski A., "Bu Today," (2009). [Online]. Available: https://www.bu.edu/articles/2009/how-a-bu-prof-april-fooled-the-country. [Accessed 20.02.2020].

111. Lazer D. M. J. (2018), "The Science of Fake news," in Science, pp. 1094-1096.

112. Lemire J., Miller Z. and Weissert W., 08.11.2020. [Online]. Available: https://apnews.com/article/joe-biden-wins-white-house-ap-fd58df73aa677acb74fce2a69adb71f9. [Accessed 15.01.2021].

113. Levitz E., 09.06.2017. [Online]. Available: https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/06/every-terrifying-thing-that-donald-trump-has-done.html. [Accessed 01.04.2021].

114. Lewandowsky S., et al. (2020), "Using the President's Tweets to Understand Political Diversion in the Age of Social Media," Nature Communications, vol. 11, pp. 1-12.

115. Li Y, et al. (2020), "Coronavirus vaccine development: from SARS and MERS to COVID-19," 2020. JBiomedSci, vol. 27, no. 104.

116. Liang L., et al. (2020), "Help comes from understanding: the positive effect," nt J Environ Res Public Health, pp. 5022.

117. Lidan L. (2020), Viral Modernism: The Influenza Pandemic and Interwar Literature, by Elizabeth Outka., New York: Johns Hopkins University Press.

118. Linden V.D., et al. (2020), "You are Fake news: political bias in perceptions of Fake news," Media, Culture & Society, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 460-470.

119. Lippert T. (2019), "NATO, Climate Change, and International Security," RAND Corporation.

120. Maldonado M. (2019), "Understanding Fake news: Technology, Affects, and the Politics of the Untruth," Historia comunicación social, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 533546.

121. Maras M., Alexandrou A. (2018), "Determining Authenticity of Video Evidence in the Age of Artificial Intelligence and In the Wake of Deepfake Videos," The International Journal of Evidence and Proof, pp. 1-8.

122. Marshall H., & Drieschova A. (2018), "Post-Truth Politics in the UK's Brexit Referendum," New Perspectives, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 89-105.

123. McCarthy N., 12.01.2021. [Online]. Available: https://thewire.in/world/donald-trump-twitter-chart. [Accessed 04.03.2021].

124. McFadden J. B. (2016), Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing.

125. Mcintyre L. (2018), Post-Truth, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

126. McLuhan M. (1964), Understanding Media, Canada: McGraw-Hill.

127. McManus J. (1992), "What Kind of Commodity is News.," Communication Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 787-805.

128. McQuail D. (2010), McQuail's mass communication theory, Sage publications.

129. Medford R.J., et al. (2020), "An "Infodemic": Leveraging high-volume twitter data to understand early public sentiment for the Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak." Open Forum Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 7.

130. Melody W. H. (1990), "Communications policy in the global information economy," in Public Communication: The New Imperatives, London, Sage, pp. 1639.

131. Merkel H., Lipman H. B., Navarro J. A., Sloan A., Michalsen J. R., Stern A. M. & Cetron M. S. (2007), "Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic," JAMA, vol. 298, no. 6, pp. 644654.

132. Mersey R.D., Malthouse E. C., & Calder B. J. (2010), "Engagement with Online Media," Journal of Media Business Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 37-56.

133. Meyer, R. (2018). "The grim conclusions of the largest-ever study of Fake news." The Atlantic, 8, 2018.

134. Miller J., "Nytimes," 21.04.2003. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/21/world/aftereffects-prohibited-weapons-illicit-arms-kept-till-eve-war-iraqi-scientist.html. [Accessed 10.01.2020].

135. Miller J., BBC, 30.06.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-40444354. [Accessed 12.10 .2020].

136. Mitchell A., et al., 15.06.2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.journalism.org/2019/06/05/many-americans-say-made-up-news-is-a-critical-problem-that-needs-to-be-fixed/. [Accessed 14.02.2021].

137. Moïse E., "nytimes," 17.11.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/20/opinion/johnson-propaganda-vietnam-westmoreland.html. [Accessed 02.03.2020].

138. Morris J. (2020), "Simulacra in the Age of Social Media: Baudrillard as the Prophet of Fake news," Journal of Communication Inquiry.

139. Mourad A., Srour A., Harmanani H., Jenainati C., and Arafeh M. (2020), "Critical Impact of Social Networks Infodemic on Defeating Coronavirus COVID-19 Pandemic: Twitter-Based Study and Research Directions," in IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management.

140. Muqsith M.A. (2018), "The Use of Hashtag in The Political Campaign," in Средства массовой коммуникации в многополярном мире: проблемы и перспективы, Moscow.

141. Muqsith M.A, & Muzykant V.L. (2019), "Cyberprotest: new media and the new social movement in Indonesia," RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 765-775.

142. Muqsith M.A, Kuswanti A. Pratomo R. R., & Muzykant V. (2021), "Trump's Twitter Propaganda During COVID-19," Journal the Messenger, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 223-237.

143. Muqsith M.A, Pratomo R. R., Kuswanti A. & Muzykant V. (2021), "Social solidarity movement to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia," Journal Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 147-158.

144. Muqsith M.A., & Muzykant V.L. (2019), "Effect Fake news for Democracy," Journal Cita Hukum, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 307-318.

145. Muqsith M.A., & Muzykant V.L. (2019), "How New Media Becomes a Platform for Public Participation," in Средства массовой коммуникации в многополярном мире: проблемы и перспективы, Moscow, pp. 400.

146. Muqsith M.A., Muzykant V.L., Pratomo R.R., and Setiawan R. (2020), "Media Discourse of Roots Causes and Security Perspectives on Climate Change," International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 300-310.

147. Muqsith M.A., Pratomo R.R., Zaina A.G, & Kuswanti A. (2021), "Fake news as a Tool to Manipulate the Public with False Information," Proceedings of the 2nd International Indonesia Conference on Interdisciplinary Studies (IICIS 2021), pp. 118-127.

148. Muqsith, M., Pratomo, R., & Muzykant, V. (2021). Трамп, Твиттер и фейковые новости (Trump, Twitter and Fake news). Journal Cita Hukum, vol. 9, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.15408/jch.v9i3.22445

149. Murphy C. (2020), "Our Predictions about the Internet Are Probably Wrong," The Atlantic.

150. Murphy S., 13.02.2012. [Online]. Available: https://mashable.com/2012/02/12/whitney-houston-twitter/. [Accessed 10.10.2020].

151. Murray D. (2000), "Changing Technologies, Changing Literacy Communities?" Language Learning & Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 39-53.

152. Muzykant V. L. and Muqsith M. A. (2020), "Media educational approach to climate change news agenda in Russia," Медиаобразование, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 166-177.

153. Muzykant V., et al. (2020), "Corporate Social Responsibility in the Digital Transformation of Business Ecosystems," International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1295-1313.

154. Muzykant V.L., & Muqsith M.A. (2021), "Social Consequences of the 2020 Regional Elections in Indonesia under the COVID-19 Pandemic". Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Социология, vol. 3, no. 21, pp. 536-542.

155. Muzykant V.L., Muqsith M.A., Pratomo R.R., Barabash V. (2021), "Fake news on COVID-19 in Indonesia". In: Berube D.M. (eds) Pandemic Communication and Resilience. Risk, Systems and Decisions. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77344-1_22.

156. Naeem S.B, Bhatti R, Khan A. (2021), "An exploration of how Fake news is taking over social media and putting public health at risk,". Health Info Libr J. 38(2):143-149. https://doi: 10.1111/hir.12320. Epub 2020. July 12. PMID: 32657000; PMCID: PMC7404621.

157. Nasution S., 23.09.2020. [Online]. Available: https://cfds.fisipol.ugm.ac.id/deep-fake-as-a-new-form-of-violence-against-women/. [Accessed 26.05.2021].

158. Nguyen C. T. (2018), "Echo Chambers and Epistemic Bubbles," Episteme, pp. 1-21.

159. Nielsen R. K., & Graves, L. (2017), "News you don't believe": Audience perspectives on Fake news (Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism Factsheets). Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

160. Nielsen R., Fletcher, N. B. Newman and P. Howard, (2020), "Navigating the 'infodemic': how people in six countries access and rate news and information about coronavirus," Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, Oxford.

161. Nusselder A. (2013), "Twitter and the Personalization of Politics," Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, vol. 18, pp. 91-100.

162. OECD. (2016), "How Technology Is Changing Work and Organizations," The Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, vol. 3, pp. 349-75.

163. OECD. ^1998), 21st Century Technologies, France: Oecd Publications.

164. Orso D., et al. (2020), "Infodemic and the spread of Fake news in the COVID-19-era," European journal of emergency medicine, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 327-328.

165. Oxford Business Group, 30.09.2020. [Online]. Available: https://oxfordbusinessgroup.com/news/how-has-COVID-19-changed-media-consumption. [Accessed 05.01.2021].

166. Pain P., & Chen G. (2019), "The President Is in: Public Opinion and the Presidential Use of Twitter," social media + Society, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-12.

167. Pakistan Today, 11.01.2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/01/11/anthropologists-make-contact-with-remote-cut-off-tribe-still-thanking-raheelsharif/. [Accessed 01.10.2020].

168. Patwa P., et al. (2021), "Fighting an Infodemic: COVID-19 Fake news Dataset," in Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer International Publishing, pp. 21-29.

169. Pew research survey, 15.12.2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.pewresearch.org/journalism/2016/12/15/many-americans-believe-fake-news-is-sowing-confusion/. [Accessed 12.05.2021].

170. Pham N., 04.05.2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-32579598. [Accessed 10.09.2020].

171. Posetti J., & Matthews A. (2018), "A short guide to the history of 'Fake news' and disinformation," ICFJ under Creative Commons Attribution-Share A like 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).

172. PTI, 26.05.2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.outlookindia.com/web site/story/india-news-removed-from-WhatsApp-group-for-questioning-poll-performance-alka-lamba-slams-arvind-kejriwal/330976. [Accessed 14.02.2021].

173. Quandt T., et al. (2019), "Fake news," in The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

174. Rao H., & Greve H. R. (2018), " Disasters and community resilience: Spanish flu and the formation of retail cooperatives in Norway," AcadManag J, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 5-2.

175. Rawlinson L., & Hunt N., 26.06.2009. [Online]. Available: https://edition.cnn.com/2009/TECH/06/26/michael.jackson.Internet /. [Accessed 10.08.2020].

176. Reuters Institute. (2016), "Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2016," Reuters Institute for the Study of

177. Reuters Institute. (2018), "Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2018," Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

178. Richardson B. (2007), The Process of Writing News: From Information to Story, Boston: MA: Pearson.

179. Richardson N. (2017). Fake news and journalism education. Asia Pacific Media Educator, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-9.

180. Rini R. (2017). Fake news and partisan epistemology. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 43.

181. Rise J. (2017), "Brexit, Trump, and Post-Truth Politics," Public Integrity, pp. 1-4.

182. Robertson A., 03.12.2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.theverge.com/21276897/fake-news-Facebook-twitter-misinformation-lies-fact-check-how-to-Internet -guide. [Accessed 02.01.2021].

183. Roca-Cuberes C. and Young A. (2020), "Vox Populi? Trump's Twitter Page as Public Forum," MDPI Social Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 226.

184. Rochlin N. (2017), "Fake news: belief in Post-Truth." Library Hi-Tech. 35(3), pp. 386-392.

185. Romano A., 10.04.2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.vox.com/2018/4/18/17252410/jordan-peele-obama-deepfake-buzzfeed. [Accessed 01.04.2021].

186. Rosenberg B., Williams T. R., and Nimashaun C. A., 09.11.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.vox.com/2020/11/8/21550345/50-million-confirmed-cases-COVID-19-worldwide. [Accessed 03.02.2021].

187. Rovetta. A & Bhagavathula A. S. (2020), "Global Infodemiology of COVID-19: Analysis of Google Web Searches and Instagram Hashtags," Journal of medical Internet research, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. e20673.

188. Rubin V.L., et al. (2016), "Deception detection for news: Three types of fakes,". In Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology. Vol. 52. No. 1. pp. 1-4.

189. Rumata V. M., & Sastrosubroto A. (2020), "The Paradox of Indonesian Digital Economy Development," Higher Education and Intelligence Applications, 27.05.

190. Sacchetti M., 11 04 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.washingtonpost.com/immigration/congress-citizenship-legislation/2021/04/09/e0f32e4c-8dbd-11eb-9423-04079921c915_story.html. [Accessed 01 05 2021].

191. Saepulloh R., "The Effect of Hoax and Hate Speech a Cyber Crime with Simple Technology in People's Social Life," 12.05.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.wartaekonomi.co.id/read285275/89-ribu-krts-kab-garut-terima-bansos-jabar. [Accessed 11.12.2020].

192. Safdar K., 05.04.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-target-botched-its-response-to-the-north-carolina-bathroom-law-1491404107. [Accessed 05.11.2020].

193. Saha A. (2021), "Social Media Creating Resilient Communities During COVID-19: India, Bangladesh & Pakistan," in Pandemic Communication and Resilience, Risk, Systems, Springer Nature Switzerland, pp. 347-362.

194. Salkowitz R., 17.01.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/robsalkowitz/2017/01/17/trumps-20-million-twitter-followers-get-smaller-under-the-microscope/?sh=7f3d8d954407. [Accessed 12.12.2020].

195. Sambuli N., "aljazeera.com," 17.08.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2 017/8/17/how-kenya-became-the-latest-victim-of-fake-news/. [Accessed 17.01.2021].

196. Sample C., Jensen M. J., Scott K., McAlaney J., Fitchpatrick S., Brockinton A., and Ormrod, A. (2020), Interdisciplinary lessons learned while researching fake news. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2947.

197. Saputri M., 09.10.2017. [Online]. Available: https://tirto.id/dwi-hartanto-meminta-maaf-soal-klaim-prestasi-di-belanda-cx4s. [Accessed 01.05.2021].

198. Schackmuth A. (2018), "Extremism, Fake news and hate: effects of social media in the Post-Truth era".

199. Schroeder R. (2019), "Digital Media and the Entrenchment of Right-Wing Populist Agendas," social media + Society.

200. Schudson M. (1989), "The Sociology of News Production," Media, Culture & Society, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 263-282.

201. Schudson M. (2003), The Sociology of News. Edited by Jeffrey Alexander, Contemporary Societies, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

202. Septanto H., (2018), "The Influence of Hoax and Hate Speech a Cyber Crime with Simple Technology in People's Social Life," Kalbiscentia: Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi, vol. 2, no 5, pp. 157-162.

203. Shane S., "nytimes," 07.09.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/07/us/politics/russia-Facebook-twitter-election.html?mtrref=www.google.com.au. [Accessed 12.01.2021].

204. Shedden D., 15.01.2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.poynter.org/reporting-editing/2015/today-in-media-history-2009-hudson-river-crash-landing-photo-sent-with-twitter/. [Accessed 02.10.2020].

205. Shesterina A.M., Vidnaya O., & Zvereva E. (2020), Mediaecology of Urban Space // Social and Behavioural Sciences - pp. 1230-1238.

206. Shesterina, A.M. (2020). Modern Trends in the Development of Audiovisual Media as Translators of Cultural Values. Communication trends in the post-literacy era: Polylingualism, Multimodality and Multiculturalism as Prerequisites for New Creativity. —Ekaterinburg, pp. 618-629.

207. Shires, J. (2021). Windmills of the Mind: Higher-Order Forms of Disinformation in International Politics. In 2021 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). IEEE. pp. 257-273.

208. Shoemaker P., & Reese S.T. (2013), Mediating the Message in the 21st Century: A Media Sociology Perspective, New York: Routeledge.

209. Shuster S., "Time," 09.08.2017. [Online]. Available: https://time.com/4889471/germany-election-russia-fake-news-angela-merkel/. [Accessed 01 02 2020].

210. Snith T., 11.11.2020. [Online]. Available: https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/trump-longstanding-history-calling-elections-rigged-doesnt-results/story?id=74126926. [Accessed 21.05.2021].

211. Solis-Moreira J., 22.01.2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/5g-doesnt-cause-COVID-19-but-the-rumor-it-does-spread-like-a-virus. [Accessed 01.10.2020].

212. Solomon D. H., Bucala R., Kaplan M. J., & Nigrovic P. A. (2020), "The "Infodemic" of COVID-19," Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1806-1808.

213. Sommariva S, et al. (2018), Spreading the (Fake) News: Exploring Health Messages on Social Media and the Implications for Health Professionals Using a Case Study, American Journal of Health Education, vol.49 no. 4, pp.246-255.

214. Somu S., 17.07.2020. [Online]. Available: https://jakartaglobe.id/opinion/wrong-to-use-china-as-scapegoat-for-COVID19. [Accessed 21. 05. 2021].

215. Southey F., 27.03.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2020/03/27/Panic-buying-amid-coronavirus-fears-How-much-are-we-spending-and-why-is-it-a-problem. [Accessed 07.10.2020].

216. Southwell B., Thorson E., and Sheble L. (2018), "The Persistence and Peril of Misinformation," in American Scientist, Texas, University of Texas Press, pp. 372.

217. Statista. 2010. Share of Indonesian population in 2010, by religion. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1113891/indonesia-share-of-population-by-religion/ [Accessed 31.12.2021].

218. Stahl, K. (2018). Fake news detection in social media. California State University Stanislaus, 6, pp. 4-15.

219. Subramanian S., 15.02.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.wired.com/2017/02/veles-macedonia-fake-news/. [Accessed 01.11.2020].

220. Tandoc E.C., Lim Z.W., & Ling R. (2018), "Defining 'Fake news' A Typology of Scholarly Definitions," Digital Journalism, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 137-153.

221. Thomas, 01.09.2015. [Online]. Available: https:// thepoliticalinsider.com/first-time-voter-waited-92-years-to-meet-trump-what-happened-next-is-amazing/. [Accessed 10.09.2020].

222. Thorn M., & Curnow S. 16.01.2021. "Jakartaglobe". "What You Share Defines You": Indonesia Has World's Biggest Fact-checking Network," [Online]. Available: https://jakartaglobe.id/news/what-you-share-defines-you-indonesia-has-worlds-biggest-factchecking-network [Accessed 31.12.2021].

223. Thornton B. (2000), "The Moon Hoax: Debates About Ethics in 1835 New York Newspapers," Journal of Mass Media Ethics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 89-100.

224. Tsfati Y., et al. (2020), "Causes and Consequences of Mainstream Media Dissemination of Fake news: Literature Review and Synthesis," in Annals of the International Communication Association.

225. Turcio L., and M. Obrenovic. (2020), "Misinformation, disinformation, malinformation: causes, trends, and their influence on democracy."

226. Umah A. 18.04.2020. "Cnbclndonesia". [Online]. Available: https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/tech/20200418175206-37-152897/kominfo-ada-554-hoax-soal-COVID-19-dengan-89-tersangka. [Accessed 31.12.2021].

227. UNESCO Series on Journalism Education. (2018), "Journalism, 'Fake news' & Disinformation," the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, France.

228. Utomo P. W., 09.10.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.remotivi.or.id/amatan/420/kebohongan-dwi-hartanto-kebohongan-media. [Accessed 10.04.2021].

229. Vaezi A., and Javanmard S. (2020), "Infodemic and risk communication in the era of CoV-19," Adv BiomedRe, vol. 9, no. 10.

230. Van Cuilenburg J., & McQuail D. (2003), "Media policy paradigm shifts: Towards a New Communications Policy Paradigm," European Journal of Communication, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 181-207.

231. Vasu N., et al. (2018), "Fake news: National security in the Post-Truth era." S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.

232. Verstraete, M., Bambauer, D. E., & Bambauer, J. R. (2021). "Identifying and countering Fake news." Hastings Law Journal, no.73.

233. Wade M., "Cyber armies, info wars and Fake news add to Syria's suffering," 05.11.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.smh.com.au/national/cyber-armies-info-wars-and-fake-news-add-to-syrias-suffering-20171105-gzf8a1.html. [Accessed 12.12.2020].

234. Wahl-Jorgensen K., et al. (2009), Handbook of Journalism studies, New York: Routledge.

235. Waisbord S. (2018), "Truth is What Happen to News: On Journalism, Fake news, and Post-Truth," Journalism Studies, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1866-1878.

236. Wakefield J., 25.03.2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-56523378. [Accessed 02.04.2021].

237. Walsh T., 06.01.2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.usnews.com/news/ken-walshs-washington/articles/2017-01-06/trump-uses-twitter-as-strategic-weapon. [Accessed 15.12.2020].

238. Wang C. (2020), "Fake news and Related Concepts: Definitions and Recent Research Development," Contemporary Management Research, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 145-174.

239. Wang M., Rao M., & Sun Z. (2020), "Typology, Etiology, and Fact checking: A Pathological Study of Top Fake news in China," Journalism Practice, pp. 1-20.

240. Wardle C. and Derakhshan D. H. (2017), "Information Disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making," the Council of Europe, Strasbourg Cedex.

241. Wardle C., "Medium.com," 17.02.2017. [Online]. Available: https://medium.com/1st-draft/fake-news-its-complicated-d0f773766c79. [Accessed 02.02.2020].

242. Warf B. (2018), "The Sage Encyclopedia of the Internet". London: SAGE Publication.

243. Wasserman H., 05.06.2020. [Online]. Available: https://theconversation.com/cultural-factors-are-behind-disinformation-pandemic-why-this-matters-141884. [Accessed 11.02.2021].

244. We Are Social. (2021), "Digital 2021," We Are Social Inc., https://wearesocial.com/digital-2021.

245. We Are Social, 11.02.2021. [Online]. Available: https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2021-indonesia. [Accessed 10.05.2021].

246. We Are Social, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://wearesocial.com/digital-2020. [Accessed 10.01.2021].

247. White D. (1950), "The 'Gatekeeper'. A Case Study in The Selection of News," Journalism Quarterly, vol. 27, pp. 383-390.

248. Whittling A., and Williams D. (2013), "Why people use social media: a uses and gratifications approach," Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 362-369.

249. Wildana F. (2021), "An Explorative Study on Social Media Blocking in Indonesia". The Journal of Society and Media, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 456-84. https://journal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jsm/article/view/12976.

250. Wilding D., et al. (2018), "The Impact of Digital Platforms on News and Journalistic Content," University of Technology Sydney, NSW.

251. Woodward A., 02.10.2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-election/trump-fake-news-counter-history-b732873.html. [Accessed 04.03.2021].

252. Worland J., 04.10.2016. [Online]. Available: https://time.com/4517326/climate-change-public-opinion/. [Accessed 01.02.2021].

253. Zarocostas J. (2020), "How to fight an infodemic," Elsevier Ltd.

254. Zhang D., Zhou L., Kehoe J. & Kilic I. (2016), "That Online Reviewer Behaviors Really Matter? Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors on Detection of Fake Online Reviews". Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 456-481.

255. Zhang X., & Ghorbani A. (2020), "An overview of online Fake news: Characterization, detection, and discussion," Information Processing & Management, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 102025.

256. Zimdars, M. and McLeod, K. eds. (2020), "Fake news: understanding media and misinformation in the digital age". MIT Press.

257. Zuniga H.G., et al. (2020), "Populism in the era of Twitter: How social media contextualized new insights into an old phenomenon," New Media & Society, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 585-594.

Literature in Russian

258. Братина О.А., и Братина О.А. Fakenews и "Третья Линия". // Ученые записки Крымского Федерального Университета имени В.И. Вернадского. Философия. Политология. Культурология. - 2018. - т. 4. - № 4. - С. 3-11.

259. Буряковская В. А., Дмитриева О. А. Кликбейт как лингвокультурный феномен (на материале русского, французского и английского языков). // Филологические Науки. - 2020. - т. 3. - № 23. - С. 105-112.

260. Ильченко С.Н., Фейк как антиисточник информации: риск для профессиональных стандартов журналистики. // Гуманитарный вектор. -2018. - т. 5. - № 13. - С. 70-76.

261. Крылова Е.Н. Фейковые новости на страницах столичных периодических изданий начала XX в. (на примере статей о полиции в газете «Новое время») // Historia provinciae - Журнал Региональной Истории. - 2020. - т. 3. - №4. - С. 765-798.

262. МанойлоА. В., Петренко А. И., Фролов Д. Б. Государственная информационная политика в условиях информационно-психологической войны. М.: Горячая линия-Телеком, 2021.

263. Рева E.K., Межина В.А. Особенности предоставления контента на YouTube об экстремальных ситуациях: жанры и форматы. // Гуманитарный Вектор. - 2020. - т. 5. - № 15. - С. 110-115.

264. Стригунов К.С., Манойло А.В., Безвербный В.А. Фейки, вбросы, государственные перевороты и демографические войны. Горячая линия -Telekom, 2021.

265. Шестерина А.М. Особенности репрезентации фейковой информации в аудиовизуальном медиаконтенте // Вестник НГУ. Серия: История, филология. - 2021. - № 6. - С. 237-246. http://vestnik.nsu.ru/historyphilology

Обратите внимание, представленные выше научные тексты размещены для ознакомления и получены посредством распознавания оригинальных текстов диссертаций (OCR). В связи с чем, в них могут содержаться ошибки, связанные с несовершенством алгоритмов распознавания. В PDF файлах диссертаций и авторефератов, которые мы доставляем, подобных ошибок нет.