Motivational and Personal Premises of Life Calling тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 19.00.01, кандидат наук Белобородова Полина Михайловна
Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Белобородова Полина Михайловна
Table of contents
Chapter 1. Theoretical analysis of the problem of life calling
1.1. Development of the concepts of calling
1.1.1. Religious roots of the idea of calling
1.1.2. Concepts of calling in Western philosophy and early psychology18
1.2. Modern research on calling
1.2.1. Concepts of calling
1.2.2. Distinctive features of calling
1.2.3. Related constructs
1.2.4. Positive and negative callings
1.2.5. Research on calling in non-Western cultures
1.2.6. Calling in Russian culture
1.2.7. Intervention research on calling
Conclusion on the first chapter
Chapter 2. Empirical investigation of the phenomenon of calling
2.1. Exploratory qualitative study
2.1.1. Sample, design, and methods
2.1.3. Limitations and discussion
2.2. Longitudinal study
2.2.1. Sample, design, and methods
2.2.3. Limitations and Discussion
Conclusion on the second chapter
Chapter 3. Some practical applications
3.1. General recommendations for practitioners
3.2. Intervention for the discernment of calling
3.2.1. Intervention mapping
3.2.2. Intervention testing
3.2.3. Personal characteristics of subjects in search for calling
3.2.3. Limitations and discussion
Conclusion on the third chapter
Рекомендованный список диссертаций по специальности «Общая психология, психология личности, история психологии», 19.00.01 шифр ВАК
"The role of executive functions in emotion regulation"2022 год, кандидат наук Мохаммед Абдул-Рахеем
Исламизация государства, гендерных отношений и повседневности в Пакистане2021 год, кандидат наук Саид Лубна
The Universalism of fundamental human rights and the agents of global justice2022 год, кандидат наук Коаччи Фабио
Влияние политических связей на стоимость российских компаний2022 год, кандидат наук Трифонов Дмитрий Александрович
Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «Motivational and Personal Premises of Life Calling»
Relevance of the study
Modern people find themselves in a situation of freedom unthought-of before. Victor Frankl emphasized that when humans lost their base instincts they have forever forfeited their unity with nature, but gained a capacity of choice. In recent times another source of regulation, traditions, is also waning (Frankl, 2006). Modern people have to make their choices and construct their lives on their own. At the same time the lack of opportunities for self-realization and meaningful interaction with other people transforms this freedom to unbearable uncertainty and leads to a phenomenon called "an escape from freedom" by Erich Fromm (1994). Also, contemporary world is constantly changing, and modern people are experiencing challenges in navigating the endless flow of events and information. People need something to guide them and sustain coherence in life, but at the same time leave space for creativity and change. This role can be played by an ancient idea of calling or vocation that recently seems to have regained interest of general public, as well as research community. A range of self-help books on the topic have been published in Russia and internationally, mostly in the last five years. Also many in class and on-line courses aimed at helping to find one's calling have been created. Unfortunately, all those initiatives are not supported by research and are based mainly on their authors' personal experience. Only a handful of studies in Russia have specifically addressed the phenomenon of calling despite a long intellectual and spiritual tradition and extensive research on related constructs, such as personal meaning (Leontiev, 2013).
The present study is aimed at investigating how Russian students conceptualize the idea of calling, exploring personal characteristics of individuals in active search for their callings, and conceiving of theoretical mechanisms and practical methods for the discernment of calling.
Extent of previous research
In recent years we are witnessing a resurgence of interest to the concept of calling among psychology, management and counseling professionals. The number of academic articles on the topic published from 2007 to 2017 increased sevenfold compared to the number of articles published before 2007 (Dik & Shimizu, 2019). It has been demonstrated in many studies that a sense of calling is associated with a range of positive outcomes at work and in life in general (Duffy & Dik, 2013). The idea of calling is relevant for a substantial share of people throughout their whole lives: for students (Duffy, Dik, & Steger, 2011), working adults (Duffy, Allan et al., 2013), unemployed (Duffy, Bott et al., 2015), and retired (Duffy, Torrey et al., 2017). At the same time after 20 years of research the authors did not reach an agreement on the very definition of calling (Myers, 2013). This situation demonstrates the complexity, as well as dynamic nature of the phenomenon of calling (Wrzesniewski, 2012).
Additionally, relevance of the idea of calling and potential positive outcomes that it can yield on both individual and organizational level make calling-based interventions a promising field of research and practice. So far, only a few studies empirically examined interventions dedicated to help the participants to discern the domain of their calling and enhance the sense of being called in their current activities (Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008; Harzer & Ruch, 2016; Dik, Steger, Gibson, & Peisner, 2012). On the other hand, practitioners' literature on the topic is abundant and diverse (e.g. Wu-Pong, 2015; Dik & Duffy, 2012; Dreher, 2008).
The idea of calling is particularly salient for students, a group which typically belongs to the emerging adulthood stage of life. Exploration of their possible callings might help them in the process of identity formation or exploring and identifying with alternative values, lifestyles, friends and partners, social groups, and occupations (LaGuardia & Ryan, 2002; Marcia & Archer, 1993).
Aim of the research - to explore the phenomenon of calling as it manifests among Russian students, personal characteristics of the individuals in search for calling, and
psychological mechanisms for the discernment of calling.
Object of the research - the phenomenon of calling.
Topic of the research - Russian students' seculars conceptions of calling, personal characteristics of individuals in search for calling, the process of the discernment of calling.
Research design and hypotheses
The present research contains two studies and a report on the practical application of the research findings. Study 1 constitutes a qualitative exploration of Russian students' secular conceptions of calling. The general hypothesis is that calling is a relevant construct for Russian culture in general and student population in particular, but Russian students' conceptions of calling differ from the conceptions of calling of students in other countries. Given its exploratory nature, no empirical hypothesis was developed for this study. Study 2 was aimed at investigating how three levels of engagement with calling (presence of, search for and living calling) linked to each other and proximal variables (life meaning and three dimensions of personal life position: agency, awareness, and authenticity) over time among university students. It was conducted in a form of a longitudinal study with measurements at two time points, with the following hypotheses:
1. T1 life meaning and personal life position would predict T2 presence of calling over and above T1 presence of calling.
2. T1 life meaning and personal life position would predict T2 search for calling over and above T1 search for calling.
3. T1 life meaning and personal life position would predict T2 living calling over and above T1 living calling.
4. T1 presence of calling would not predict T2 life meaning and personal life position over and above T1 life meaning and personal life position.
5. T1 search for calling would not predict T2 life meaning and personal life position over and above T1 life meaning and personal life position.
6. T1 living calling would not predict T2 life meaning and personal life position over and above T1 life meaning and personal life position.
7. T1 search for calling would predict T2 presence of calling over and above T1 presence of calling.
8. T1 presence of calling would predict T2 living calling over and above T1 living calling.
The report on practical applications contains general recommendations for practitioners, a report on the results of a preliminary test of an intervention aimed at helping university students to discern their callings, as well as an investigation of personal characteristics of the individuals in active search for calling (participants of the intervention) in comparison with overall students' population.
Theoretical and methodological basis
Since a unified theory of calling does not exist yet, we did not prefer any of the existing concepts to the others. Hence, in Study 1 we approached the phenomenon under investigation in an open-minded manner by employing an inductive qualitative research design that allows deriving theory from data. The results showed that the concept of calling could be approached from the perspective of existential psychology (Frankl, V., Leontiev, D.), as well as self-determination theory (Ryan, R., Deci, E.). In our study those approaches complement each other. Those findings also coincided with the results of the theoretical analysis, leading us to build on those approaches further research (Study 2), as well as practical applications.
The following methods were employed in the research:
Study 1: Qualitative document analysis (Altheide, Coyle, DeVriese, & Schneider, 2008)
• Brief Calling Scale (BCS; Dik, Eldridge, Steger, &Duffy, 2012)
• Living Calling Scale (LCS; Duffy, Bott, Allan, Torrey, & Dik, 2012)
• Noetic Orientations Test (NOT; Leontiev, 2000)
• Personal Life Position (PLP; Leontiev & Shilmanskaya, 2019)
Validity and reliability of the results are based on psychometric characteristics of the methods, as well as observing statistical procedures of hypothesis testing. Data were collected via survey administration application Google Forms developed by Google LLC (https://docs.google.com/forms) and open source application 1KA developed by the Centre for Social Informatics, at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana (http://www.1ka.si). Mathematical processing of data was conducted in MS Excel 2019 and RStudio 1.1.456.
Characteristics of sample
The empirical part includes two studies. The first study has been conducted on a sample of 104 students of National Research University Higher School of Economics and National Research Nuclear University MEPhI who filled in a questionnaire on their understanding of the concept of calling and the actions they undertook in order to discern and implement it. The second longitudinal study has been done on a sample of 61 students of National Research University Higher School of Economics who filled the questionnaire at both Time 1 and Time 2. The final study aimed at investigating personality characteristics of individuals in active search for calling was conducted on a sample of 386 students, including 37 students who participated in the intervention and 349 students representing general students' population (Study 2 sample at Time 1).
Despite the abundance of research on constructs related to calling, such as personal meaning, calling itself has not been empirically investigated in the context of Russian culture. Study 1 was aimed at filling this gap. Additionally, to date longitudinal studies on calling have been scarce. Study 2 was designed to rectify this omission. Finally, intervention research on calling included mainly brief interventions (with the exception of Wu-Pong, 2015), whereas Dik and Steger (2008) suggest that such stable constructs as
calling take more time to change. In response to this claim, we designed and tested a
comprehensive course aimed at helping individuals to discern their calling that can be further used in institutional setting, as well as individual counseling.
The research addresses a few gaps in the literature on calling. First, it makes a contribution in cross-cultural research on calling by examining possible differences between Western and Non-western concepts of calling. Also, there is a shortage of longitudinal studies investigating the process of the discernment of calling. The present study demonstrates that the sense of calling can be cultivated with deliberate actions and is linked with life meaning and the sense of harmony between oneself and actual course of one's life.
As result of the theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of calling, as well as the qualitative exploration of Russian students' concepts of calling, a university elective course dedicated to help students to discover their callings has been developed and tested. The results of the present study may also be used by counseling psychologists and coaches in individual career counseling, as well as by university career centers and psychological support services.
Research results and theses submitted to defense
1. Calling is a salient concept for Russian students; they see it as something more than a mere job, are intrinsically motivated to find it and dedicate themselves to it, and associate it with the usage of their abilities;
2. A sense of authenticity, or harmony between oneself and one's actual course of life contributes to the increase in the sense of calling, as well as perceived realization of calling over time;
3. Perceived deficit of meaning in life is one of the main factors motivating individuals to actively search for their callings;
4. Discernment of calling is possible through an intervention which involves exploration of strengths, values and sources of enjoyment, followed by synthesizing those three aspects in a personal mission statement and finding opportunities to implement it in the real world.
Approbation and discussion
The results of the theoretical investigation of the concept of calling, as well as the results of the pilot test of the intervention were presented at the XXI and XXII International Symposiums "Psychological Problems of the Meaning of Life and Acme" (Moscow, 2016, 2017). The results of qualitative exploration of the concept of calling among Russian students were presented at the 9th European Conference on Positive Psychology (Budapest, 2018). Finally, the results of the intervention testing were presented at the summer school "Quality of Life in the Conditions of the Global Transformation of the Mankind" (Gorno-Altaysk, 2018), XX April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development (Moscow, 2019), as well as XVI European Congress of Psychology (Moscow, 2019). The results of the research are presented in four publications, including two articles in Scopus and Web of Science indexed journals, and one article in Higher School of Economics' "white list" journal.
Structure and volume of the dissertation
The dissertation consists of introduction, three chapters, conclusion, list of references, and appendix. The main text takes 103 pages. The list of references comprises of 207 sources, including 191 in English, 15 in Russian, and one in French. The dissertation includes 20 tables and one figure. Overall volume is 150 pages.
Похожие диссертационные работы по специальности «Общая психология, психология личности, история психологии», 19.00.01 шифр ВАК
Политика США в сирийском конфликте2019 год, кандидат наук Хаддад Хамса Риад
Extraordinary optical transmission in holographic and polycrystalline structures/Усиленное оптическое пропускание в голографических и поликристаллических наноструктурах2021 год, кандидат наук Ушков Андрей Александрович
Разработка лингвистических тестов для диагностики речевых нарушений и их внедрение в клиническую и исследовательскую практику2021 год, кандидат наук Буйволова Ольга Витальевна
Синергия предсказательной силы моделей кредитных банковских рисков2021 год, кандидат наук Хромова Элла Павловна
Заключение диссертации по теме «Общая психология, психология личности, история психологии», Белобородова Полина Михайловна
Considering the rich history of philosophical thought and empirical investigation of the phenomenon of calling, a need for interdisciplinary research on the intersection of psychology, education, theology, and management should be acknowledged. Such research would contribute to the creation of a more coherent concept of calling. Fortunately, steps are already being made in this direction. In 2013 Martin Seligman and his team organized a conference in Kent, United Kingdom where they invited prominent religious and secular scholars who investigated the concept of calling in their works. Following the conference, a book called Being Called: Scientific, secular and sacred perspectives was published (Yaden, McCall, & Ellens, 2015). Moreover, between 2014 and 2016 the Institute of Ecumenical and Cultural Studies in Collegeville, Pennsylvania carried out a study analyzing and comparing the concepts of calling in various religious traditions, and issued a book called Calling in today's world: Voices from eight faith traditions (Cahalan & Schuurman, 2016).
Another fruitful line of investigation is cross-cultural research on calling. Extant research on calling in non-Western cultures indicates that ideas of calling are present in different cultures and have many common features, but also differ from one another. The present study contributed to research on calling on non-Western samples and revealed that calling is a salient concept for Russian culture and is centered around personal meaning. We argue that calling is developed rather than discovered, and the process of its development is a part of an overarching process of self-actualization. Our analysis repeatedly pointed out to a connection between calling and authenticity or harmony between oneself and one's actual course of life. The lack of thereof might be one of reasons why some individuals start actively searching for their callings.
Intervention research on calling is also relevant and timely; there has been an upsurge of interest in the concept of calling in recent years. So far, mainly popular literature and programs based on their authors' personal experience rather than research findings are answering this call. In the present study we tested an intervention for college
students which integrated the results of research studies and practitioners' insights and
demonstrated that it is possible to discern one's calling through deliberate actions. In future research the intervention can be adjusted for younger audience and tested on samples of high school pupils. For this age group, exploration of potential callings might be even more timely and relevant than for university students since they have to make a difficult choice of their path after school. The intervention could help them to understand their interests better and find meaningful ways of contributing to the world. The continuation of cross-cultural and interdisciplinary dialogue is the necessary condition for the creation of a comprehensive concept of calling that could provide basis for interventions which would enrich existing practices in counseling, education, and management.
Finally, as we noted earlier, there is a shortage of high quality research-based educational content on calling in Russian, despite the high demand. The results of the present study, as well as other studies on calling carried out in other countries can be presented to a wide audience through magazine articles, educational videos, workshops and lectures aimed at increasing awareness of the idea of calling and the process of its discernment.
Список литературы диссертационного исследования кандидат наук Белобородова Полина Михайловна, 2019 год
1. Ahn, J., Dik, B. J., & Hornback, R. (2017). The experience of career change driven by a sense of calling: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 102, 48-62.
2. Ajouri, P. (2015). 'The vocation of man' - 'Die Bestimmung de Menschen': A teleological concept of the German Enlightmenment and its aftermath n the nineteenth century. In H. Truper, D. Chakrabarty, S. Subrahmanyam (Eds.), Europe's Legacy in the Modern World: Historical teleologies in the modern world (pp. 49-70). London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.
3. Allan, B. A., & Duffy, R. D. (2014). Calling, goals, and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(2), 451-464.
4. Allan, B. A., Tebbe, E. T., Duffy, R. D., & Autin, K. L. (2015). Living a calling, life satisfaction, and workplace climate among an lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. The Career Development Quarterly, 63(4), 306-319.
5. Altheide, D., Coyle, M., DeVriese, K., & Schneider, C. (2008). Emergent qualitative document analysis. In S. N. Hesse-Biber, & P. Leavy (Eds.), Handbook of Emergent Methods (pp. 127-151). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
6. Ardichvili, A. (2009). The relationship between meaning of working and socioeconomic transformations: The case of post-communist Russia. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), 218-234.
7. Autin, K. L., Allan B. A., Palaniappan, M., & Duffy, R. D. (2016). Career calling in India and the United States: A cross-cultural measurement study. Journal of Career Assessment, 25(4), 1-15.
8. Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York, NY: The Goulford Press.
9. Bellah, R. N., Madsen, N., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985) Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
10. Berdyaev, N. (1933). The end of our time (D. Attwater, Trans.). New York, NY: Sheed and Ward.
11. Berdyaev, N. (1938). Solitude and society (G. Reavey, Trans.). London, UK: Geoffrey Bles.
12. Berg, J. M., Grant, A. M., & Johnson, V. (2010). When callings are calling: Crafting work and leisure in pursuit of unanswered occupational callings. Organization Science, 21(5), 973-994.
13. Berkelaar, B. L., & Buzzanell, P. M. (2015). Bait and switch or double-edged sword? The (sometimes) failed promises of calling. Human Relations, 68(1), 157-178.
14. Berkson, M. (2016). The cultivation, calling and loss of the self. Confucian and Daoist perspectives on vocation. In K. A. Cahalan, D. J. Schuurman (Eds.), Calling in today's world. Voices from eight faith perspectives (pp. 161-201). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
15. Bhagavad-Gita (R. Prasad, Trans.) (1988). Fremont, CA: American Gita Society. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/religion/f2001/docs/bhagavad.pdf
16. Bourdieu, P. (1980). Le mort saisit le vif [The dead catches the alive]. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales [Acts of research in social sciences]: Paternalisme et maternage [Paternalism and mothering], 32-33, 3-14.
17. Bott, E. M., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). A two-wave longitudinal study of career calling among undergraduates: Testing for predictors. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 250-264.
18. Bunderson, J. S., & J. A. Thompson (2009). The call of the wild: Zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(1) 32-57.
19. Cahalan, K. A. (2016). Called to follow: Vocation in the Catholic tradition. In K. A. Cahalan, D. J. Schuurman (Eds.), Calling in today's world. Voices from eight faith perspectives (pp. 26-51). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
20. Cahalan, K. A., & Schuurman, D. J. (2016). Calling in today's world. Voices from eight faith perspectives. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
21. Calvin, J. (2002). The institutes of the Christian religion (H. Beveridge, Esq., Trans.). Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved from http: //www. ccel. org/ccel/calvin/institutes. html
22. Cardador, M. T., Dane, E., & Pratt, M. G. (2011). Linking calling orientations to organizational attachment via organizational instrumentality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 367-378.
23. Cavallar, G. (2015). Dynamic cosmopolitanism: A brief sketch with a special emphasis on Kant. In L. C. Sanahuja, & F. Ghia (Eds.), Cosmopolitanism: Between ideals and reality (pp. 35-58). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publ.
24. Choi, Y. E., Cho, E., Jung, H. J., & Sohn, Y. W. (2018). Calling as a predictor of life satisfaction: The roles of psychological capital, work-family enrichment, and boundary management strategy. Journal of Career Assessment, 26(4), 567-582.
25. Collins, J. W. (2004). Calling: A phenomenological study. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved from http: //www. lib. ncsu. edu/resolver/1840.16/5810
26. Conklin, T. A. (2013). Work worth doing: A phenomenological study of the experience of discovering and following one's calling. Journal of Management Inquiry, 21(3), 298-317.
27. Conway, N., Clinton, M., Sturges, J., & Budjanovcanin, A. (2015). Using self-determination theory to understand the relationship between calling enactment and daily well - bei ng. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(8), 1114-1131.
28. Coulson, J. C., Oades, L. G., & Stoyles, G. J. (2012). Parents' subjective sense of calling in childrearing: Measurement, development, and initial findings. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(2), 83-94.
29. Creed, P. A., Rogers, M. E., Praskova, A., & Searle, J. (2014). Career calling as a personal resource moderator between environmental demands and burnout in Australian junior doctors. Journal of Career Development, 41(6) 547-561.
30. Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1964). An experimental study in existentialism: The psychometric approach to Frankl's concept of noogenic neurosis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20(2), 200-207.
31. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
32. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
33. Currie, C. L., Kuzmina, M. V., & Nadyuk, R. I. (2012). The counseling profession in Russia: Historical roots, current trends, and future perspectives. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 488-493.
34. Dalton, J. C. (2001). Career and calling: Finding a place for the spirit in work and community. New Directions for Student Services, 95, 17-25.
35. Damon, W. (2008). The path to purpose: Helping our children find their calling in life. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
36. Davidson, J. C., & Caddell, D. P. (1994). Religion and the meaning of work. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33(2), 135-147.
37. Dawson, J. (2005). A history of vocation: Tracing a keyword of work, meaning, and moral purpose. Adult Education Quarterly, 55(3), 220-231.
38. Dewey, J. (2004). Democracy and education. New York, NY: Courier Corporation.
39. Di Giovanni, G. (2005). The Vocation of Humankind, 1774-1800: Freedom and religion in Kant and his immediate successors. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
40. Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424-450.
41. Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Make your job a calling: How the psychology of vocation can change your life at work. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press.
42. Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Eldridge, B. M. (2009). Calling and vocation in career counseling: Recommendations for promoting meaningful work. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(6), 625-632.
43. Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Tix, A. P. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and a sense of calling in the workplace. In P. C. Hill, & B. J. Dik (Eds.), The psychology of religion and workplace spirituality (pp. 113-134). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
44. Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 242-263.
45. Dik, B. J., Sargent, A. M., & Steger, M. F. (2008). Career development strivings: Assessing goals and motivation in career decision-making and planning. Journal of Career Development, 35(1), 23-41.
46. Dik, B. J., & Shimizu, A. B. (2019). Multiple meanings of calling: Next steps for studying an evolving construct. Journal of Career Assessment, 27(2), 323-336.
47. Dik, B. J., Steger, M. F., Gibson, A., & Peisner, W. (2012). Make your work matter: Development and pilot evaluation of a purpose-centered career education intervention. New Directions for Youth Development, 132, 59-73.
48. Dobrow, S. R. (2013). Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(4), 431-452.
49. Dobrow Riza, S. R., & Heller, D. (2015). Follow your heart or your head? A longitudinal study of the facilitating role of calling and ability in the pursuit of a challenging career. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 695-712.
50. Dobrow, S. R., & Tosti-Kharas, J. (2011). Calling: The development of a scale measure. Personnel Psychology, 64(4), 1001-1049.
51. Dobrow, S. R., & Tosti-Kharas, J. (2012). Listen to your heart? Calling and receptivity to career advice. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 264 -280.
52. Dollahite, D. C., Marks, L. D., Kear, T. M., Lewis, B. M., & Stokes, M. L. (2018). Beyond the bucket list: Identity-centered religious calling, being, and action among parents. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 10(1), 44-54.
53. Domene, J. F. (2012). Calling and career outcome expectations: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 281-292.
54. Domene, J. F. (2015). Trajectories of calling in undergraduate students with varying career expectations. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 34(4), 315-324.
55. Douglass, R. P., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). Calling and career adaptability among undergraduate students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 58-65.
56. Douglass, R.P., Duffy, R. D., & Autin, K. L. (2016). Living a calling, nationality, and life satisfaction: A moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(2) 253-269.
57. Dreher, D. (2008). Your personal renaissance: Twelve steps to finding your life' s true calling. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.
58. Dreher, D. E., Holloway, K. A., & Schoenfelder, E. (2007). The vocation identity questionnaire: Measuring the sense of calling. In R. Piedmont (Ed.), Research in the social scientific study of religion, Vol. 18 (pp. 99-120). Boston, NA: Brill.
59. Duckworth, A. (2016). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. New York, NY: Scribner.
60. Duffy, R. D. (2006). Spirituality, religion, and career development: Current status and future directions. Career Development Quarterly, 55, 52-53.
61. Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., Autin, K. L., & Bott, E. M. (2013). Calling and life satisfaction: It's not about having it, it's about living it. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 42-52.
62. Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., Autin, K. L., & Douglass, R. P. (2014). Living a calling and work well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61(4), 605-615.
63. Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., & Bott, E. M. (2012). Calling and life satisfaction among undergraduate students: Investigating mediators and moderators. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(3), 469-479.
64. Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., Bott, E. M., & Dik, B. J. (2014). Does the source of a calling matter? External summons, destiny, and perfect fit. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(4), 562-574.
65. Duffy, R. D., & Autin, K. L. (2013). Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 219-227.
66. Duffy, R. D., Autin, K. L., Allan, B. A., & Douglass, R. P. (2015). Assessing work as a calling: An evaluation of instruments and practice recommendations. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(3) 351-366.
67. Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., & Autin, K. L. (2015). Calling among the unemployed: Examining prevalence and links to coping with job loss. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(4), 332-345.
68. Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., & Torrey, C. L. (2012). Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: Testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 50-59.
69. Duffy R. D., & Dik B. J. (2013). Research on calling: What have we learned and where are we going? Journal of Vocational Behavior 83(3), 428-436.
70. Duffy, R. D., Dik, B. J., & Steger, M. S. (2011). Calling and work related outcomes: Career commitment as a mediator. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(2), 210-218.
71. Duffy, R. D., Douglass, R. P., Autin, K. L., & Allan, B. A. (2014). Examining predictors and outcomes of a career calling among undergraduate students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 309-318.
72. Duffy, R. D., Douglass, R. P., Autin, K. L., England, J., & Dik, B. J. (2016). Does the dark side of a calling exist? Examining potential negative effects. Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(6), 634-646.
73. Duffy, R. D., England, J. W., Douglass, R. P., Autin, K. L., & Allan, B. A. (2017). Perceiving a calling and well-being: Motivation and access to opportunity as moderators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 127-137.
74. Duffy, R. D., Foley, P. F., Raque-Bogdan, T. L., Reid, L., Dik, B. J., Castano, M. C., et al. (2012). Counseling psychologists who view their careers as a calling: A qualitative study. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 293-308.
75. Duffy, R. D., Manuel, R. S., Borges, N. J., & Bott, E. M. (2011). Calling, vocational development, and well-being: A longitudinal study of medical students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 361-366.
76. Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2007). The presence of and search for a calling: Connections to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(3), 590601.
77. Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2010). The salience of a career calling among college students: Exploring group differences and links to religiousness, life meaning, and life satisfaction. The Career Development Quarterly, 59, 27-41.
78. Duffy, R. D., Torrey, C. L., England, J., & Tebbe, E. A. (2017). Calling in retirement: A mixed methods study. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(4), 399413.
79. Duncan, P. J. S. (2002). Russian messianism: Third Rome, revolution, communism and after. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
80. Eilberg, A. (2016). Hineini (Here I am). Jewish reflections on calling. In K. A. Cahalan, D. J. Schuurman (Eds.), Calling in today's world. Voices from eight faith perspectives (pp. 1-25). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
81. Eisinga, R., Te Grotenhuis, M., & Pelzer, B. (2013). The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach, or Spearman-Brown? International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 637-642.
82. Elangovan, A. R., Pinder, C. C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 428-440.
83. Elo, S., & Kyngas, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107-115.
84. Engstrom, M. (2014). Contemporary Russian messianism and new Russian foreign policy. Contemporary Security Policy, 35(3), 356-379.
85. Esteves, T., & Lopes, M. P. (2017). Crafting a calling: The Mediating role of calling between challenging job demands and turnover intention. Journal of Career Development, 44, 1-15.
86. Evans, G., & Northmore-Ball, K. (2012). The limits of secularization? The resurgence of Orthodoxy in post-soviet Russia. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51(4), 795-808.
87. Fichte, J. G. (1931). The vocation of man (W. Smith, Trans). Chicago, IL: The Open Court Publishing Company.
88. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. New York, NY: Sage Publications.
89. Frank, S. L. (2010). The meaning of life. (B. Jakim, Trans.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
90. Frankl, V. E. (1986). The doctor and the soul: From psychotherapy to logotherapy. New York, NY: Vintage.
91. Frankl, V. E. (2006). Man's search for meaning. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
92. French, J. R., & Domene, J. F. (2010). Sense of "calling": An organizing principle for the lives and values of young women in university. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 44(1), 1-14.
93. Fromm, E. (1994). Escape from freedom. New York, NY: Holt Paperbacks.
94. Fromm, E. (2013). Man for himself: An inquiry into the psychology of ethics. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
95. Gazica, M. W., & Spector, P. E. (2015). A comparison of individuals with unanswered callings to those with no calling at all. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 1-10.
96. Gravetter, F. J., & Wallnau, L. B. (2016). Statistics for the behavioral sciences. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
97. Guo, Y., Guan, Y., Yang, X., Xu, J., Zhou, X., She, Z., Jiang, P., Wang, Y., Pan, J., Deng, Y., Pan, Z., & Fu, M. (2014). Career adaptability, calling and the professional competence of social work students in China: A career construction perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior 85(3), 394-402.
98. Hagmaier, T., & Abele, A. E. (2012). The multidimensionality of calling: Conceptualization, measurement and a bicultural perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 39-51.
99. Hagmaier, T., & Abele, A. E. (2015). When reality meets ideal: Investigating the relation between calling and life satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(3) 367-382.
100. Hall, S. F., Burkholder, D., & Sterner, W. R. (2014). Examining spirituality and sense of calling in counseling students. Counseling and Values, 59(1), 3-16.
101. Hall, T., & Chandler, D. E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 155-176.
102. Haney-Loehlein, D. M., McKenna, R. B., Robie, C., Austin, K., & Ecker, D. (2015). The power of perceived experience: Events that shape work as a calling. The Career Development Quarterly, 63, 16-30.
103. Harzer, C., & Ruch, W. (2012). When the job is a calling: The role of applying one's signature strengths at work. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(5), 362-371.
104. Hefferon, K., Ashfield, A., Waters, L., & Synard, J. (2017). Understanding optimal human functioning: The 'call for qual' in exploring human flourishing and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(3), 211-219.
105. Hegel, G. W. F. (2001). The philosophy of history. (J. Sibree, Trans.). Kitchener, Canada: Batoche Books.
106. Hermansen, M. (2004). Islamic concepts of vocation. Revisiting the idea of vocation. In J. C. Haughey (Ed.), Theological explorations (pp. 77-96). Washington, D. C.: Catholic University of America Press.
107. Hernandez, E. F., Foley, P. F., & Beitin, B. K. (2011). Hearing the call: A phenomenological study of religion in career choice. Journal of Career Development, 38, 62-88.
108. Heslin, P. A. (2005). Conceptualizing and evaluating career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 113-26.
109. Hirsbrunner, L. E., Loeffler, D. N., & Rompf, E. L. (2012). Spirituality and religiosity: Their effects on undergraduate social work career choice. Journal of Social Service Research, 38(2), 199-211.
110. Hirschi, A. (2011). Callings in career: A typological approach to essential and optional components. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 60-73.
111. Hirschi, A., & Herrmann, A. (2013). Calling and career preparation: Investigating developmental patterns and temporal precedence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 51-60.
112. Holy Bible: The New International Version (1989). London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton.
113. Hunter, I., Dik, B. J., & Banning, J. H. (2010). College students' perceptions of calling in work and life: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(2), 178-186.
114. Jung, C. J. (2014). Collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 17. Development of Personality. (G. Adler, & R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
115. Kaminsky, S. E., & Behrend, T. S. (2015). Career choice and calling: Integrating calling and social cognitive career theory. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(3), 383-398.
116. Kant, I. (1997). Lectures on ethics (P. Heath, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
117. Kempster, J. H. (2015). "Be thou my vision": Mystical experience and religious calling. In D. B. Yaden, T. D. McCall, J. H. Ellens (Eds.), Being Called: Scientific, Secular, and Sacred Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
118. Kent, B. V., Bradshaw, M., & Dougherty, K. D. (2016). Attachment to God, vocational calling, and worker contentment. Review of Religious Research, 58(3), 343-364.
119. Keown, D., & Prebish, C. S. (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
120. Khairullina, E. R. (2000). Formirovanie u studentov tekhnicheskogo vuzaprizvaniya k professii inzhenera [Development of calling to engineering among students of a technologocal university] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Kazan State Technological University, Kazan, Russia.
121. Khakhulina, L. (2008). Work in the system of life orientations of the Russian population. Sociological Research, 47(2), 6-32.
122. Kierkegaard, S. (1996). Papers and journals: A selection (A. Hannay, Trans.). London, UK: Penguin.
123. Kierkegaard, S. (1983). Fear and trembling; repetition. (H. V. Hong, & E. H. Hong, Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
124. Kim, H. J., Praskova, A., & Lee, K.-H. (2017). Cross-cultural validation of the career calling scale for Korean emerging adults. Journal of Career Assessment, 25(3), 434449.
125. Kirschner, R. (1984). The vocation of holiness in late antiquity. Vigiliae Christianae, 38(2), 105-124.
126. Klimov, E. A., & Noskova, O. G. (1992). Istoriya psikhologii truda v Rossii. Uchebnoe posobie [The History of Psychology of Labor in Russia. A Handbook]. Moscow, Russia: Moscow University Publishing.
127. Kolden, M. (1983). Luther on vocation. Word and World, 3(4), 382-390.
128. Kryakhtunov, M. I. (2012). Psikhologicheskie osnovaniya pedagogicheskogo prizvaniya uchitelya [Psychological grounds of teacher pedagogical vocation]. Pedagogicheskoye obrazovanie i nauka [Pedagogical education and research], 8, 49.
129. Kwon, S., & Kim, M. (2014). Qualitative study for exploring the construct of vocational calling and the effect of factors on living a calling. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 21, 393-420.
130. LaGuardia, J. G., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). What adolescents need: A self-determination theory perspective on development within families, school, and society. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents (pp. 193-220). Greenwich, CN: Information Age.
131. Latova N., & Latov Y. (2008). Etnometricheskie podkhody k sravnitelnomu analizu khozyaistvenno-kulturnykh tsennostei [Ethnometric approaches to comparative analysis of economic and cultural values]. Economic Issues, 5, 80-102.
132. Leana, C., Appelbaum, E., & Shevchuk, I. (2009). Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job crafting. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6), 1169-1192.
133. Lee, K. J. (2016). Sense of calling and career satisfaction of hotel frontline employees: Mediation through knowledge sharing with organizational members. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(2), 346-365.
134. Leider, R. J., & Shapiro, D. (2015). Work reimagined: Uncover our calling. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
135. Leonidova, G. V., & Ustinova, K. A. (2016). Trudoustroistvo po spetsial'nosti v regione [Employment in the region according to qualification field]. Vyshee obrazovanie v Rossii [Higher Education in Russia], 4, 64-71.
136. Leontiev, D. A. (2000). Test smyslozhiznennykh orientatsii [Noetic orientations test]. Moscow, Russia: Smysl.
137. Leontiev, D. A. (2013). Personal meaning: A challenge for psychology. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(6), 459-470.
138. Leontiev, D. (2017). The divine knot: A relational view of meaning. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 30(1), 50-56.
139. Leontiev, D., Rasskazova, E., Fam A., & Ovchinnikova E. (2016). Psikhologia vybora [Psychology of choice]. Moscow, Russia: Smysl.
140. Leontiev, D., & Shilmanskaya, A. (2019). Zhiznennaya pozitsia lichnosti: ot teorii k operatsionalizatsii [Personal life position: From theory to operationalization]. Voprosy Psikhologii [Psychological Issues], 3, 90-100.
141. Lossky, V. (1978). Orthodox theology: An introduction. New York, NY: St Vladimir's Seminary Press.
142. Lysova, E. I., Jansen, P. G., Khapova, S. N., Plomp, J., & Tims, M. (2018). Examining calling as a double-edged sword for employability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 104, 261-272.
143. Lyukhanova, S. V. (2019). Upravlenie professionalnym razvitiem lichnosti i professional'noe samoopredelenie [Management of professional development of a person, and professional self-dentification]. Menedzhment v Rossii i za rubezhom [Management in Russia and Abroad], 2, 94-99.
144. Marcia, J. E., & Archer, S. L. (1993). Identity status in late adolescence: Scoring criteria. In J. E. Marcia, A. S. Waterman, D. R. Matteson, S. L. Archer, & J. L. Orlofsky (Eds.), Ego identity (pp. 205-240). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
145. Martela, F., & Steger, M. F. (2016). The three meanings of meaning in life: Distinguishing coherence, purpose, and significance. Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(5), 531-545.
146. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
147. Maslow, A. H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York, NY: Viking.
148. McGrath, A. (1999). Calvin and the Christian calling. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion & Public Life, 94, 31-35.
149. Michaelsen, R. S. (1953). Changes in the puritan concept of calling or vocation. The New England Quarterly, 26(3), 315-336.
150. Mikhaylov, A. V. (2010). Formirovanie professional'nogo prizvania buduschego perevodchika [Development of calling of future translator] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Immanuel Kant Russian State University, Kaliningrad, Russia.
151. Mounier, E. (1952). Personalism. Translated by P. Mairet. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul LTD.
152. Myers, V. L. (2013). Conversations about calling: Advancing management perspectives. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
153. Nath, V. (2016). Calling orientations of junior doctors and medical interns in India: cultural, occupational and relational perspectives. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 17(2), 143-163.
154. Nelson, C. A. P. (2006). Kierkegaard's concept of vocation in "An occasional discourse." In R. L. Perkins (Ed.), International Kierkegaard commentary: upbuilding discourses in various spirits. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.
155. Nietzsche, F. (1913). Human all-too-human. A book for free spirits. Part II. (P. V. Cohn, B. A., Trans.). New York, NY: The MacMillan Company.
156. Novak, M. (1996). Business as a calling: Work and the examined life. New York, NY: The Free Press.
157. Oates, K. L. M., Hall, M. E. L., & Anderson, T. L. (2005). Calling and conflict: A qualitative exploration of interrole conflict and the sanctification of work in Christian mothers. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 33(3), 210-223.
158. Ortega y Gasset, J. (1956). The Dehumanization of art and other writings on art and culture. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
159. Park, Y. (2010). The predictors of subjective career success: An empirical study of employee development in a Korean financial company. International Journal of Training and Development, 14, 1-15.
160. Park, J., Sohn, Y. W., & Ha, Y. J. (2016). South Korean salespersons' calling, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(3), 415-428.
161. Peterson C., Park N., Hall N., & Seligman M. E. P. (2009). Zest and work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2), 161-172.
162. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.
163. Rambachan, A. (2016). Worship, the public good and self-fulfillment: Hindu perspectives on calling. in K. A. Cahalan, D. J. Schuurman (Eds.), Calling in Today's World. Voices from Eight Faith Perspectives. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
164. Rawat, A., & Nadavulakere, S. (2015). Examining the outcomes of having a calling: Does context matter? Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(3), 499-512.
165. Redse, A. (2015). Studies in Systematic Theology: Vol. 18. The Christian doctrine of justification contextualized to new Confucianism. 'Justification by grace alone': Facing Confucian self-cultivation. Boston, MA: Brill.
166. Richards, L. S. (1881). Vocophy: The new profession. A system enabling a person to name the calling or vocation one is best suited to follow. Marlboro, MA: Pratt.
167. Rothmann, S., & Hamukang'andu, L. (2013). Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia. South African Journal of Education, 33(2), 1-16.
168. Rubinstein, M. M., & Ignatiev, V. E. (1925). Psikhologiya, pedagogika I gigena yunosti [Psychology, pedagogy, and hygiene of youth]. Moscow, Russia: Mir.
169. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
170. Salamun, K. (2006). Karl Jaspers' conceptions of the meaning of life. An
International Journal in Philosophy, Religion, Politics, and the Arts, 1(1-2). 1-8.
171. Saldana, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
172. Salikhov, N. R. (2004). Pedagogicheskie usloviya formirovaniya u kursantov voennogo instituta prizvania k professii ofitsera [Pedagogical conditions of the development of military officer calling among students of military instityte] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of the Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia.
173. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York, NY: Free Press.
174. Seligman, M. E. P. (2010). Flourish: Positive psychology and positive interventions. In Matheson, M. (Ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 31 (pp. 231-243), Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.
175. Sellers, T. S., Thomas, K., Batts, J., & Ostman, C. (2005). Women called: A qualitative study of Christian women dually called to motherhood and career. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 33(3), 198-209.
176. Shim, Y., & Yoo, S-K. (2012). Development and validation of the Korean version of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ-K). The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 4, 847-872.
177. Shimizu, A. B., Dik, B. J., & Conner, B. T. (in press). Conceptualizing calling: Cluster and taxometric analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior.
178. Shutova, E. A. (2011). Prizvanie cheloveka: onto-gnoseologicheskoe issledovanie [Vocation of a person: Onto-epistemological study] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia.
179. Sri Aurobindo (2000). Essays on the Gita. Pondicherry, India: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publ.
180. Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology. Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 679-687). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
181. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 80-93.
182. Steger, M. F., Kashdan, T. B., Sullivan, B. A., & Lorentz, D. (2008). Understanding the search for meaning in life: Personality, cognitive style, and the dynamic between seeking and experiencing meaning. Journal of personality, 76(2), 199-228.
183. Steger, M. F., Kawabata, Y., Shimai, S., & Otake, K. (2008). The meaningful life in Japan and the United States: Levels and correlates of meaning in life. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(3), 660-678.
184. Steger, M. F., Pickering, N. K., Shin, J. Y., & Dik, B. J. (2010). Calling in work: Secular or sacred? Journal of Career Assessment, 18(1), 82-96.
185. Stone, A. (2009). John Calvin, the work ethic, and vocation. WRS Journal, 16(2), 24-30.
186. Tarasova, G. K. (2018). Sovremenny oblik pedagoga-muzykanta: kreativnost' i prizvanie [The modern image of the teacher-musician: Creativity and calling]. European Social Science Journal, 4, 269-277.
187. Tolstoy, L. (1919). The pathway of life (A. J. Wolfe, Trans.). New York, NY: International Book Publishing company.
188. Torrey, C. L, & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Calling and well-being among adults: Differential relations by employment status. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(4) 415-425.
189. Ugwu, F. O., & Onyishi, I. E. (2018). Linking perceived organizational frustration to work engagement: The moderating roles of sense of calling and psychological meaningfulness. Journal of Career Assessment, 26(2), 220-239.
190. Unno, M. (2016). The calling of no-calling: Vocation in Nikaya and Mahayana Buddhism. In K. A. Cahalan, D. J. Schuurman (Eds.). Calling in today's world. Voices from eight faith perspectives. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
191. Ushakov, D. N. (ed.) (1935-1940). Tolkoviy slovar' russkogoyazyka [Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language]. State Publishing House of Foreign and National Dictionaries. Retrieved from https://dic.academic.ru
192. Vinokurov, V. I. & Maltseva, A. P. (2017). Filosofiya i kulturologiya prizvaniya [Philosophy and culturology of vocation]. Povolzhskiy Pedagogicheskiy Poisk [Povolzhsk Pedagogical Research], 1(19), 136-146.
193. Ware, T. (1993). The Orthodox church: An introduction to eastern Christianity. London, UK: Penguin.
194. Watts, A. G., & Zabrodin, Y. (2003). Public policies and career development: A framework for the design of career information, guidance and counseling services in developing and transition countries: Country report on Russia. Washington, D. C.: World Bank.
195. Weber, M. (1950). Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
196. Weiss, J. W., Skelley, M. F., Haughey, J. C., & Hall, D. T. (2004). Calling, new careers and spirituality: A reflective perspective for organizational leaders and professionals. In Pava, M. L., & Primeaux, P. (Eds.), Spiritual intelligence at work: Meaning, metaphor, and morals (pp. 175-201). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
197. Woitowicz, L. A., & Domene, J. F. (2013). Relationships between calling and academic motivation in postsecondary students. Canadian Journal of Counselling
and Psychotherapy, 47(4), 460-479.
198. Wrziesniewski, A. (2012). Callings. In K. Cameron, & G. Spreitzer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship (pp. 45-54). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
199. Wrzesniewski, A., Dutton, J. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179-201.
200. Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C. R., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 21-33.
201. Wu-Pong, S. (2015). Calling counselors: A novel calling intervention for career development and well-being. D. B. Yaden, T. D. McCall, J. H. Ellens (Eds.), Being Called: Scientific, Secular, and Sacred Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
202. Yaden, D. B., Newberg, B. N. (2015). Road to Damascus moments: calling experiences as prospective epiphanies. D. B. Yaden, T. D. McCall, J. H. Ellens (Eds.), Being Called: Scientific, Secular, and Sacred Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
203. Yaden, D. B., McCall, T. D., Ellens, J. H. (Eds.), Being called: Scientific, secular, and sacred perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
204. Yaden D. B. (2015). Answering the call. In D. B. Yaden, T. D. McCall, J. H. Ellens (Eds.), Being Called: Scientific, Secular, and Sacred Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
205. Yanowitch, M. (1985). Work in the Soviet Union: Attitudes and issues. New York, NY: ME Sharpe.
206. Zhang, C., Dik, B. J., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (2015). Work as a calling in China: A qualitative study of Chinese college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 236-249.
207. Zhang, C., Herrmann, A., Hirschi, A., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (2015). Assessing calling in Chinese college students: Development of a measure and its relation to hope.
Journal of Career Assessment, 23(4), 582-596.
Обратите внимание, представленные выше научные тексты размещены для ознакомления и получены посредством распознавания оригинальных текстов диссертаций (OCR). В связи с чем, в них могут содержаться ошибки, связанные с несовершенством алгоритмов распознавания. В PDF файлах диссертаций и авторефератов, которые мы доставляем, подобных ошибок нет.