Motivational and Personal Premises of Life Calling тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 19.00.01, кандидат наук Белобородова Полина Михайловна
Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Белобородова Полина Михайловна
Table of contents
Chapter 1. Theoretical analysis of the problem of life calling
1.1. Development of the concepts of calling
1.1.1. Religious roots of the idea of calling
1.1.2. Concepts of calling in Western philosophy and early psychology18
1.2. Modern research on calling
1.2.1. Concepts of calling
1.2.2. Distinctive features of calling
1.2.3. Related constructs
1.2.4. Positive and negative callings
1.2.5. Research on calling in non-Western cultures
1.2.6. Calling in Russian culture
1.2.7. Intervention research on calling
Conclusion on the first chapter
Chapter 2. Empirical investigation of the phenomenon of calling
2.1. Exploratory qualitative study
2.1.1. Sample, design, and methods
2.1.3. Limitations and discussion
2.2. Longitudinal study
2.2.1. Sample, design, and methods
2.2.3. Limitations and Discussion
Conclusion on the second chapter
Chapter 3. Some practical applications
3.1. General recommendations for practitioners
3.2. Intervention for the discernment of calling
3.2.1. Intervention mapping
3.2.2. Intervention testing
3.2.3. Personal characteristics of subjects in search for calling
3.2.3. Limitations and discussion
Conclusion on the third chapter
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Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «Motivational and Personal Premises of Life Calling»
Relevance of the study
Modern people find themselves in a situation of freedom unthought-of before. Victor Frankl emphasized that when humans lost their base instincts they have forever forfeited their unity with nature, but gained a capacity of choice. In recent times another source of regulation, traditions, is also waning (Frankl, 2006). Modern people have to make their choices and construct their lives on their own. At the same time the lack of opportunities for self-realization and meaningful interaction with other people transforms this freedom to unbearable uncertainty and leads to a phenomenon called "an escape from freedom" by Erich Fromm (1994). Also, contemporary world is constantly changing, and modern people are experiencing challenges in navigating the endless flow of events and information. People need something to guide them and sustain coherence in life, but at the same time leave space for creativity and change. This role can be played by an ancient idea of calling or vocation that recently seems to have regained interest of general public, as well as research community. A range of self-help books on the topic have been published in Russia and internationally, mostly in the last five years. Also many in class and on-line courses aimed at helping to find one's calling have been created. Unfortunately, all those initiatives are not supported by research and are based mainly on their authors' personal experience. Only a handful of studies in Russia have specifically addressed the phenomenon of calling despite a long intellectual and spiritual tradition and extensive research on related constructs, such as personal meaning (Leontiev, 2013).
The present study is aimed at investigating how Russian students conceptualize the idea of calling, exploring personal characteristics of individuals in active search for their callings, and conceiving of theoretical mechanisms and practical methods for the discernment of calling.
Extent of previous research
In recent years we are witnessing a resurgence of interest to the concept of calling among psychology, management and counseling professionals. The number of academic articles on the topic published from 2007 to 2017 increased sevenfold compared to the number of articles published before 2007 (Dik & Shimizu, 2019). It has been demonstrated in many studies that a sense of calling is associated with a range of positive outcomes at work and in life in general (Duffy & Dik, 2013). The idea of calling is relevant for a substantial share of people throughout their whole lives: for students (Duffy, Dik, & Steger, 2011), working adults (Duffy, Allan et al., 2013), unemployed (Duffy, Bott et al., 2015), and retired (Duffy, Torrey et al., 2017). At the same time after 20 years of research the authors did not reach an agreement on the very definition of calling (Myers, 2013). This situation demonstrates the complexity, as well as dynamic nature of the phenomenon of calling (Wrzesniewski, 2012).
Additionally, relevance of the idea of calling and potential positive outcomes that it can yield on both individual and organizational level make calling-based interventions a promising field of research and practice. So far, only a few studies empirically examined interventions dedicated to help the participants to discern the domain of their calling and enhance the sense of being called in their current activities (Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008; Harzer & Ruch, 2016; Dik, Steger, Gibson, & Peisner, 2012). On the other hand, practitioners' literature on the topic is abundant and diverse (e.g. Wu-Pong, 2015; Dik & Duffy, 2012; Dreher, 2008).
The idea of calling is particularly salient for students, a group which typically belongs to the emerging adulthood stage of life. Exploration of their possible callings might help them in the process of identity formation or exploring and identifying with alternative values, lifestyles, friends and partners, social groups, and occupations (LaGuardia & Ryan, 2002; Marcia & Archer, 1993).
Aim of the research - to explore the phenomenon of calling as it manifests among Russian students, personal characteristics of the individuals in search for calling, and
psychological mechanisms for the discernment of calling.
Object of the research - the phenomenon of calling.
Topic of the research - Russian students' seculars conceptions of calling, personal characteristics of individuals in search for calling, the process of the discernment of calling.
Research design and hypotheses
The present research contains two studies and a report on the practical application of the research findings. Study 1 constitutes a qualitative exploration of Russian students' secular conceptions of calling. The general hypothesis is that calling is a relevant construct for Russian culture in general and student population in particular, but Russian students' conceptions of calling differ from the conceptions of calling of students in other countries. Given its exploratory nature, no empirical hypothesis was developed for this study. Study 2 was aimed at investigating how three levels of engagement with calling (presence of, search for and living calling) linked to each other and proximal variables (life meaning and three dimensions of personal life position: agency, awareness, and authenticity) over time among university students. It was conducted in a form of a longitudinal study with measurements at two time points, with the following hypotheses:
1. T1 life meaning and personal life position would predict T2 presence of calling over and above T1 presence of calling.
2. T1 life meaning and personal life position would predict T2 search for calling over and above T1 search for calling.
3. T1 life meaning and personal life position would predict T2 living calling over and above T1 living calling.
4. T1 presence of calling would not predict T2 life meaning and personal life position over and above T1 life meaning and personal life position.
5. T1 search for calling would not predict T2 life meaning and personal life position over and above T1 life meaning and personal life position.
6. T1 living calling would not predict T2 life meaning and personal life position over and above T1 life meaning and personal life position.
7. T1 search for calling would predict T2 presence of calling over and above T1 presence of calling.
8. T1 presence of calling would predict T2 living calling over and above T1 living calling.
The report on practical applications contains general recommendations for practitioners, a report on the results of a preliminary test of an intervention aimed at helping university students to discern their callings, as well as an investigation of personal characteristics of the individuals in active search for calling (participants of the intervention) in comparison with overall students' population.
Theoretical and methodological basis
Since a unified theory of calling does not exist yet, we did not prefer any of the existing concepts to the others. Hence, in Study 1 we approached the phenomenon under investigation in an open-minded manner by employing an inductive qualitative research design that allows deriving theory from data. The results showed that the concept of calling could be approached from the perspective of existential psychology (Frankl, V., Leontiev, D.), as well as self-determination theory (Ryan, R., Deci, E.). In our study those approaches complement each other. Those findings also coincided with the results of the theoretical analysis, leading us to build on those approaches further research (Study 2), as well as practical applications.
The following methods were employed in the research:
Study 1: Qualitative document analysis (Altheide, Coyle, DeVriese, & Schneider, 2008)
• Brief Calling Scale (BCS; Dik, Eldridge, Steger, &Duffy, 2012)
• Living Calling Scale (LCS; Duffy, Bott, Allan, Torrey, & Dik, 2012)
• Noetic Orientations Test (NOT; Leontiev, 2000)
• Personal Life Position (PLP; Leontiev & Shilmanskaya, 2019)
Validity and reliability of the results are based on psychometric characteristics of the methods, as well as observing statistical procedures of hypothesis testing. Data were collected via survey administration application Google Forms developed by Google LLC (https://docs.google.com/forms) and open source application 1KA developed by the Centre for Social Informatics, at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana (http://www.1ka.si). Mathematical processing of data was conducted in MS Excel 2019 and RStudio 1.1.456.
Characteristics of sample
The empirical part includes two studies. The first study has been conducted on a sample of 104 students of National Research University Higher School of Economics and National Research Nuclear University MEPhI who filled in a questionnaire on their understanding of the concept of calling and the actions they undertook in order to discern and implement it. The second longitudinal study has been done on a sample of 61 students of National Research University Higher School of Economics who filled the questionnaire at both Time 1 and Time 2. The final study aimed at investigating personality characteristics of individuals in active search for calling was conducted on a sample of 386 students, including 37 students who participated in the intervention and 349 students representing general students' population (Study 2 sample at Time 1).
Despite the abundance of research on constructs related to calling, such as personal meaning, calling itself has not been empirically investigated in the context of Russian culture. Study 1 was aimed at filling this gap. Additionally, to date longitudinal studies on calling have been scarce. Study 2 was designed to rectify this omission. Finally, intervention research on calling included mainly brief interventions (with the exception of Wu-Pong, 2015), whereas Dik and Steger (2008) suggest that such stable constructs as
calling take more time to change. In response to this claim, we designed and tested a
comprehensive course aimed at helping individuals to discern their calling that can be further used in institutional setting, as well as individual counseling.
The research addresses a few gaps in the literature on calling. First, it makes a contribution in cross-cultural research on calling by examining possible differences between Western and Non-western concepts of calling. Also, there is a shortage of longitudinal studies investigating the process of the discernment of calling. The present study demonstrates that the sense of calling can be cultivated with deliberate actions and is linked with life meaning and the sense of harmony between oneself and actual course of one's life.
As result of the theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of calling, as well as the qualitative exploration of Russian students' concepts of calling, a university elective course dedicated to help students to discover their callings has been developed and tested. The results of the present study may also be used by counseling psychologists and coaches in individual career counseling, as well as by university career centers and psychological support services.
Research results and theses submitted to defense
1. Calling is a salient concept for Russian students; they see it as something more than a mere job, are intrinsically motivated to find it and dedicate themselves to it, and associate it with the usage of their abilities;
2. A sense of authenticity, or harmony between oneself and one's actual course of life contributes to the increase in the sense of calling, as well as perceived realization of calling over time;
3. Perceived deficit of meaning in life is one of the main factors motivating individuals to actively search for their callings;
4. Discernment of calling is possible through an intervention which involves exploration of strengths, values and sources of enjoyment, followed by synthesizing those three aspects in a personal mission statement and finding opportunities to implement it in the real world.
Approbation and discussion
The results of the theoretical investigation of the concept of calling, as well as the results of the pilot test of the intervention were presented at the XXI and XXII International Symposiums "Psychological Problems of the Meaning of Life and Acme" (Moscow, 2016, 2017). The results of qualitative exploration of the concept of calling among Russian students were presented at the 9th European Conference on Positive Psychology (Budapest, 2018). Finally, the results of the intervention testing were presented at the summer school "Quality of Life in the Conditions of the Global Transformation of the Mankind" (Gorno-Altaysk, 2018), XX April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development (Moscow, 2019), as well as XVI European Congress of Psychology (Moscow, 2019). The results of the research are presented in four publications, including two articles in Scopus and Web of Science indexed journals, and one article in Higher School of Economics' "white list" journal.
Structure and volume of the dissertation
The dissertation consists of introduction, three chapters, conclusion, list of references, and appendix. The main text takes 103 pages. The list of references comprises of 207 sources, including 191 in English, 15 in Russian, and one in French. The dissertation includes 20 tables and one figure. Overall volume is 150 pages.
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Заключение диссертации по теме «Общая психология, психология личности, история психологии», Белобородова Полина Михайловна
Considering the rich history of philosophical thought and empirical investigation of the phenomenon of calling, a need for interdisciplinary research on the intersection of psychology, education, theology, and management should be acknowledged. Such research would contribute to the creation of a more coherent concept of calling. Fortunately, steps are already being made in this direction. In 2013 Martin Seligman and his team organized a conference in Kent, United Kingdom where they invited prominent religious and secular scholars who investigated the concept of calling in their works. Following the conference, a book called Being Called: Scientific, secular and sacred perspectives was published (Yaden, McCall, & Ellens, 2015). Moreover, between 2014 and 2016 the Institute of Ecumenical and Cultural Studies in Collegeville, Pennsylvania carried out a study analyzing and comparing the concepts of calling in various religious traditions, and issued a book called Calling in today's world: Voices from eight faith traditions (Cahalan & Schuurman, 2016).
Another fruitful line of investigation is cross-cultural research on calling. Extant research on calling in non-Western cultures indicates that ideas of calling are present in different cultures and have many common features, but also differ from one another. The present study contributed to research on calling on non-Western samples and revealed that calling is a salient concept for Russian culture and is centered around personal meaning. We argue that calling is developed rather than discovered, and the process of its development is a part of an overarching process of self-actualization. Our analysis repeatedly pointed out to a connection between calling and authenticity or harmony between oneself and one's actual course of life. The lack of thereof might be one of reasons why some individuals start actively searching for their callings.
Intervention research on calling is also relevant and timely; there has been an upsurge of interest in the concept of calling in recent years. So far, mainly popular literature and programs based on their authors' personal experience rather than research findings are answering this call. In the present study we tested an intervention for college
students which integrated the results of research studies and practitioners' insights and
demonstrated that it is possible to discern one's calling through deliberate actions. In future research the intervention can be adjusted for younger audience and tested on samples of high school pupils. For this age group, exploration of potential callings might be even more timely and relevant than for university students since they have to make a difficult choice of their path after school. The intervention could help them to understand their interests better and find meaningful ways of contributing to the world. The continuation of cross-cultural and interdisciplinary dialogue is the necessary condition for the creation of a comprehensive concept of calling that could provide basis for interventions which would enrich existing practices in counseling, education, and management.
Finally, as we noted earlier, there is a shortage of high quality research-based educational content on calling in Russian, despite the high demand. The results of the present study, as well as other studies on calling carried out in other countries can be presented to a wide audience through magazine articles, educational videos, workshops and lectures aimed at increasing awareness of the idea of calling and the process of its discernment.
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