The main directions of cooperation between the League of Arab States and the United Nations (1992 - 2021) / Основные направления взаимодействия Лиги арабских государств и Организации Объединенных Наций (1992 – 2021 гг.) тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 07.00.15, кандидат наук Альмуаллем Мохаммад

  • Альмуаллем Мохаммад
  • кандидат науккандидат наук
  • 2022, ФГАОУ ВО «Российский университет дружбы народов»
  • Специальность ВАК РФ07.00.15
  • Количество страниц 172
Альмуаллем Мохаммад. The main directions of cooperation between the League of Arab States and the United Nations (1992 - 2021) / Основные направления взаимодействия Лиги арабских государств и Организации Объединенных Наций (1992 – 2021 гг.): дис. кандидат наук: 07.00.15 - История международных отношений и внешней политики. ФГАОУ ВО «Российский университет дружбы народов». 2022. 172 с.

Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Альмуаллем Мохаммад

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF COOPERATION BETWEEN THE LAS AND THE UNITED NATIONS

1.1. The LAS: Principles, Scope and Legislative Structure for Cooperation with the United Nations

1.2. The LAS and the United Nations Collaboration: Key Priorities and Achievements

1.3 The Role of Arab Resource Potential for the Stability of the Global Energy System

CHAPTER 2. THE LAS AND THE UNITED NATIONS COOPERATION ON SECURITY ISSUES

2.1. The LAS and the United Nations Interaction on Traditional Security Threats

2.2. Cooperation on Non-Traditional Security Threats between the LAS and the United Nations

CHAPTER 3. INTERACTION BETWEEN LAS AND THE UNITED NATIONS ON ECONOMIC, CULTURAL AND HUMANITARIAN ISSUES

3.1. Financial and Economic Cooperation between the LAS and the United Nations

3.2. LAS and the United Nations in Protection of Human Rights: Issues and Action

3.3. Cultural and Educational Dimension of the LAS and the United Nations

CONCLUSION

LIST OF SOURCES AND LITERATURE

Рекомендованный список диссертаций по специальности «История международных отношений и внешней политики», 07.00.15 шифр ВАК

Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «The main directions of cooperation between the League of Arab States and the United Nations (1992 - 2021) / Основные направления взаимодействия Лиги арабских государств и Организации Объединенных Наций (1992 – 2021 гг.)»

INTRODUCTION

The relevance of the study stems from the emergence of new global and regional threats to peace and security in the second half of the twentieth century, and the exacerbation of political and economic contradictions between states and groups of states.

That said, international organizations have an increasingly important role as one of the main means of regulating and developing relations between states. They are important factors in strengthening stability and security, socio-economic development, and cultural exchange between states. They are also major actors in world politics, as the influence of some of them such as NATO, IBRD, IMF, and WTO is in some cases much stronger than that of the world's leading nations. This trend is not just increasing at the global and regional level.

The UN occupies a central place in today's system of international organizations. It was established in 1945 as a universal international organization with a special responsibility to maintain international peace, security, and development of cooperation between states. As such, it has a significant and multifaceted impact on contemporary international relations.

It is the most representative forum for states to discuss current issues and problems in contemporary international relations, and that the UN Charter is the foundation of contemporary international law. Within the UN framework, hundreds of international conventions and treaties that regulate multiple spheres of public life have been concluded or are in the process of being codified. The principles governing the establishment of the UN (primarily the granting of special status to the Permanent Members of the UN Security Council) reflect the objective realities of today's international political system. In this context, the importance and role of the UN as the leading global organization and political institution is growing rapidly.

In the Middle East, the increasing role of universal and regional international organizations are clearly defined. The present security situation in the region stems largely from unresolved Palestinian-Israeli relations, growing disputes between

regional states and blocs, and political instability in some fragile regional states. Thus, it is especially important to study the role of international organizations in the Middle East, specifically the LAS.

Established in 1945, the LAS (LAS) is one of the oldest post World War II international organizations. It performs several significant institutional, political, and economic roles in the Arab World. Its unifying role serves not only as an integration format for Arab countries, but also as an institutional facilitator of dialogue between the international community.

The UN and LAS share the same goals, which are to promote peace, security and stability through conflict prevention, dispute resolution, and confidence-building measures. Both organizations work to expand economic opportunities, ensure respect for human rights, and strengthen political participation of all citizens.

In addition, exploring possible areas of cooperation between the UN and LAS is relevant due to the demand of Arab States to increase the representativeness of the UN Security Council. The LAS is pushing for one Arab permanent seat in the UN Security Council, and for a new UN work concept due to globalization. These efforts increase the relevance of examining the specific political areas of interaction between the UN and LAS.

Degree of scientific development of the research problem. To conduct this research, the author analyzed Arabic, English, French, and Russian scientific literature. All literature is classified into several groups according to the issues under examination.

The first group consists of works analyzing the political, humanitarian, and economic aspects of international relations in the Middle East, whose problems are at the center of interaction between the UN and LAS.

Among these works are those of Russian authors who examine the fundamental principles and distinctive features of Arab foreign policy in contemporary regional and global realities in the context of the history and current state of international relations in the Middle East and North Africa. The most

valuable works are those of B.V. Dolgov1, I.D. Zjagelskaya2, V.A. Isaev3, R.G. Landa4, I.V. Ryzhov5, V.A. Kuznetsov, V.V. Naumkin6, E.M. Primakov, M.A. Sapronova7, A.V. Fedorchenko, and A.V. Krylov8, M. I. Mahmutova9 among others.

The work of E.M. Primakov, a prominent scholar and politician, is devoted to the characterization of the main processes that developed in the Middle East in the

1 Долгов Б.В. Феномен «Арабской весны» 2011 - 2016 гг.: причины, развитие, перспективы. Тунис, Египет, Ливия, Сирия, Алжир: монография/ Б.В. Долгов. М.: Ленанд, 2017. 200 с.

2 Звягельская И.Д. Ближний Восток и Центральная Азия: Глобальные тренды в региональном исполнении: монография/ И.Д. Звягельская. М.: Аспект Пресс, 2018. 224 с.; Звягельская И.Д. Архаизация в арабском мире: после и вместо революций/ И.Д. Звягельская // Восток. Афро-азиатские общества: история и современность. 2015. № 4. С. 104-113; Ближний Восток: политика и идентичность: монография/ под ред. И.Д. Звягельской. М.: Аспект-Пресс, 2020. 336 с.

3 Исаев В.А., Филоник А.О. Продовольственная проблема в арабских странах в свете вызовов «зеленой революции» / В.А. Исаев, А.О. Филоник // Мир новой экономики. 2020. № 1. С. 34-43; Исаев В.А., Филоник А.О. Ближний Восток: вода и безопасность / В.А. Исаев,

A.О. Филоник // Азия и Африка сегодня. 2020. № 5. С. 14-21.

4 Ланда Р.Г. История арабских стран: монография/ Р.Г. Ланда. М.: Институт Востоковедения. 2017. 440 с.; Ланда Р.Г. Глобализация и политический ислам/ Р.Г. Ланда // Бюллетень Общества востоковедов. № 18. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 101-115; Ланда Р.Г. Политический ислам и отношения Восток - Запад/ Р.Г. Ланда // Ислам в современном мире. 2015. Т. 11. № 1. С. 119-134.

5 Рыжов И. В. Российско-ливанские отношения: поиск путей взаимодействия / Е. М. Савичева, Д. Катеренчук, И. В. Рыжов // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Всеобщая история. 2021. Т. 13. № 4. С. 384-397; Рыжов И. В. Основные проблемы региональной безопасности на Ближнем Востоке / И. В. Рыжов, М. Ю. Бородина, Е. М. Савичева // Вестник Марийского государственного университета. Серия: Исторические науки. Юридические науки. 2021. Т. 7. № 1 (25). С. 48-56; Рыжов И. В. Американская стратегия «достаточного присутствия» на Ближнем Востоке / И. В. Рыжов, М. Ю. Бородина, Т. В. Баранова // Вестник МГИМО Университета. 2020. Т. 13. № 5. С. 236251.

6 Наумкин В.В. Проблема цивилизационной идентификации и кризис наций-государств/

B.В. Наумкин // Восток. Афро-азиатские общества: история и современность. 2014. № 4. С. 5-20; Конфликты и войны XXI века (Ближний Восток и Северная Африка): монография/ ДБ. Малышева, В.В. Наумкин. М.: ИВ РАН, 2015. 504 с.; Наумкин В.В., Кузнецов В. Ближний Восток в поисках утраченного возрождения: доклад Международного дискуссионного клуба «Валдай» / В.В. Наумкин, В. Кузнецов. М.: Фонд развития и поддержки Международного дискуссионного клуба «Валдай», 2021. 31 с.

7 Сапронова М.А. Новая роль ЛАГ в региональных и международных отношениях [Электронный ресурс] / М.А. Сапронова// Говорят эксперты МГИМО. 17.03.2013. Режим доступа: https://mgimo.ru/about/news/experts/236328/ (дата обращения: 22.06.2021).

8 Федорченко А.В., Крылов А.В. Феномен «Исламского государства» / А.В. Федорченко, А.В. Крылов // Вестник МГИМО. 2015. № 2 (41). С. 174-183.

9 Махмутова М. И. Политическая активность мавританских «Братьев-мусульман» (20072019) /М. И. Махмутова // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 13: Востоковедение. 2021. № 3. С. 125-136; Махмутова М. И. Положение Западной Сахары под управлением Марокко ) /М. И. Махмутова // Вестник Дипломатической академии МИД России. Россия и мир. 2020. № 3 (25). С. 170-186.

second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, and the description of individual historical episodes which the author had not only observed but also participated in.10

R.G. Landa's work "History of the Arab Countries"11 stands out separately. The author's scientific interest in this work was due to its analysis of the causal links that led to the creation of a Pan-Arab organization from the main stages of Arab history, and their relations with Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries from the 7th to 21st centuries.

Additionally, R.G. Landa's work examines the national, ethnic, and religious context of the Middle East in which the political activity of the LAS takes place, and the impact of globalization and modernization on it. In this context, the specificity of the regional population's ethno-professional composition which is subjected to "both modernization influences and challenges of racial and religious discrimination, national discord, and social and political unrest" is valuable12.

It is crucial to highlight the collective monograph by Russian experts in the "Middle East: Politics and Identity" 13, published in 2020. In the work, well-known scholars I.S. Semenenko, I.D. Zvyagelskaya, V.V. Naumkin, V.A. Kuznetsov, I.E. Ibragimov, N.Y. Surkov, I.A. Svistunova, A.S. Bogacheva, L.M. Samarskaya, G.G. Kosach, etc. focused on the issues of UN-LAS bilateral relations; the role of ethno-confessional identities and sectarian rivalries; the challenges of contemporary terrorism; the increasing role of regional powers and the formation of new alliances; the challenges of archaism and modern development; and the relationship of tradition and modernity.

10 Примаков Е.М. Ближний Восток на сцене и за кулисами/ Е.М. Примаков. М.: Центрполиграф, 2016. 415 с.

11 Ланда Р.Г. История арабских стран: монография/ Р.Г. Ланда. М.: Институт востоковедения. 2017. 440 с.

12Ланда Р.Г. Политический ислам и отношения Восток - Запад/ Р.Г. Ланда// Ислам в современном мире. 2015. Т. 11. № 1. С. 119-120.

13Ближний Восток: политика и идентичность: монография/ под ред. И.Д. Звягельской. М.: Аспект-Пресс, 2020. 336 с.

The works of M. Abdelbaki, P.O. Amur and R.A. Bosserup14 provided the author valuable insights for understanding the domestic factors of regional processes. In addition, works by S. Bianco, D.S. Buhila, S. Bremer, J.M. Dorsey, P. Huntjens, H. Finger, D. Gressani et al.15 were also studied. It is worth noting that these authors paid great attention to new security threats that have social, economic, and climatic prerequisites. These works reveal the features of constantly growing and complex regional dynamics since the first Arab Spring, which created conditions for the change in regional order.

The interdisciplinary works of Z.I. Levin16, A.V. Demchenko17 became an important historical support for this thesis, considering the complex ethno-religious peculiarities of the region. The civilizational component received a separate study in

14 Abdelbaky M. Governance and Growth in MENA Region: Evidence from Panel Data Analysis // International Journal of Finance and Economics. 2012. №2 98. P. 1-18; Amour, P.O. The Regional Order in the Gulf Region and the Middle East Regional Rivalries and Security Alliances. N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. P. 373; Boserup R.A. The Importance of the Domestic Scene in Arab Politics/ in R. A. Boserup, K. Hazbun, K. Makdisi, & H. Malmvig (Eds.) "New Conflict Dynamics: Between Regional Autonomy and Intervention in the Middle East and North Africa". Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies and the American University of Beirut, 2017. P. 209231.

15 Bianco C. Infected: The Impact of the Coronavirus on the Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource]// The European Council on Foreign Relations. March 31, 2020. URL: https://www.ecfr.eu/commentary-infected-the-impact-of-thecorona-virus-on-the-middle-east-and-no (accessed: 15.07.2021); Bouhlila D.S. Sexual Harassment and Domestic Violence in the Middle East and North Africa // Arab Barometer. 2019. № 12. P. 2-18; Bremer, C. Legal and Social Barriers Holding Back Women's Empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource] // OECD. January 23, 2020. URL: https://www.oecd.org/newsroom/legaland-social-barriers-holding-back-women-s-empowerment-in-middle-east-and-north-africa.htm (accessed: 15.07.2021); Dorsey J.M. Refugees and Shantytowns in MENA and Beyond Imperil Global Public Health [Electronic resource]// Middle East Institute. 2020. URL: https://www.mei.org.in/commentary-598 (accessed: 15.07.2021); Huntjens P., et al. The Political Economy of Water Management in Yemen: Conflict Analysis and Recommendation [Electronic resource]// The Hague Institute for Global Justice. 2014. URL: http://www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Water-Management-in-Yemen.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021); Finger H., Gressani D. Vers de nouveaux horizons. La transformation économique sur fond de transition politique dans le monde arabe // Département Moyen-Orient et Asie centrale. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2014. 48 p.

16Левин З.И. Восток: идентичность и глобализация: монография/ З.И. Левин. М.: Институт востоковедения РАН, 2007. 163 с.; Левин, З.И. Очерки природы исламизма: монография/ З.И. Левин. М.: Институт востоковедения РАН, 2014. 126 с.; Левин З.И. Арабы в жерновах модернизации: монография/ З.И. Левин. М.: Институт востоковедения РАН, 2016. 145 с.

17 Демченко А.В. Внутренние факторы формирования внешней политики стран Арабского Востока / А.В. Демченко // Вестник МГИМО Университета. 2010. № 2. С. 1-13.

V.A. Kuznetsov's work "The Problem of Strengthening Statehood in the Middle East in the light of the Theory of Social Order."18 The work's central argument is that ethno-political instability affects political systems by increasing the level of conflict, ultimately generating socio-economic instability. The work is also of practical value, as its author proposes an option for building an effective system wherein ethnic diversity should not serve as a pretext for conflict, but act as an advantage for the economic development of regional states.

The works of R.G. Aganin, V.M. Akhmedov, M.M. Mcchedlova, and Y. M. Posta examined traditional and non-traditional threats that affect the Middle East region and indirectly affect the interaction between the UN and LAS19.

Also, the works of Arab historians Al-Sahli, Oh Ben Ali, Ben Isa Ahmed20 underscores the importance of understanding multilateral and bilateral cooperation

18 Кузнецов В.А. Проблема укрепления государственности на Ближнем Востоке в свете теории социальных порядков/ В.А. Кузнецов// Восток. Афро-азиатские общества: история и современность. 2018. № 3. С. 6-23.

19 Аганин А.Р. Трайбализм и государство в Арабском регионе на пороге третьего десятилетия XXI века/А.Р. Аганин // Ближний восток и современность. 2019. № 53. С. 5-22; Ахмедов В.М. О роли Ирана в Сирии [Электронный ресурс]/ В.М. Ахмедов// Институт Ближнего Востока. 29.01.2018. Режим доступа: http://www.iimes.ru/?p=41035 (дата обращения: 20.03.2022); Мчедлова М.М. Религия в политических конструкциях современности: представляю номер / М.М. Мчедлова //Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Политология. 2020. Т. 22. № 4. С. 541-546; Мчедлова М.М. Будущее как предчувствие (к дискуссии о характере политической науки) / М.М. Мчедлова // Политическая наука. 2018. № 1. С. 93-104; Мчедлова М.М., Кудряшова, М.С. Религия и политика: от секуляризации к новым теоретическим координатам исследования / М.М. Мчедлова М.С. Кудряшова //Политическая наука. 2016. № S. С. 43-58; Нешатаева Т. Н. Интеграция и наднационализм / Т.Н. Нешатаева // Вестник Пермского университета. Юридические науки. 2014. № 2 (24). С. 32-41; Почта Ю.М. Исламизм и национализм на Большом Ближнем Востоке: вражда или симбиоз? / Ю.М. Почта //Азия и Африка сегодня. 2020. № 3. С. 4-41; Почта Ю.М. Исламский политический радикализм как фактор дестабилизации и трансформации геополитической архитектуры Ближневосточного региона/ Ю.М. Почта //Перспективы стабилизации/дестабилизации политической ситуации на Ближнем Востоке и Северной Африке: сборник материалов конференции. М.: ИАфр РАН, 2019. С. 136-146.

202лл1л.. ^Ajijll ¿V l^jljJJUj L.kJ^I jj^ji Aj^jjljj^lJJT^l .-'j^ ¿J (^J^

-jku ajjjji Uylj [Геостратегические изменения на Ближнем Востоке и их влияние на национальную безопасность арабских стран] / Аль Сахли и др. // Арабский университет наук о безопасности имени Наифа, 2020. 321 с.;'2аШ1 i^l^l ¿jj jj .^k ¿j Jj^J ¿j Jj^J

(jjJillj bajjil jLi^i Jjj 21^ Jjbll ^Ijljj -I j ^ЦЛИ JJ*JJ ^^l^ajiVI j^jJl i2JLL]l iNa'.J ¿JJ Яа^жЛ .Jc. ajjjjij 1980-2014 s j^i J^. .L^jVI [Изучение взаимосвязи между потреблением

энергии, экономическим ростом и изменением климата с использованием данных о состоянии Северной Африки и Ближнего Востока за период (2014-1980 гг.)] / О Бен Али //

in the Middle East and North Africa region, and international organizations in the context of international transformations. Equally valuable were the materials of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences21, covering both political and economic aspects and cultural and humanitarian relations of the LAS countries, and the entire organization with the UN/

The second group features the works that have served as the basis of a methodology to analyze activities that have an impact of the UN in historical aspects. These include the works of Russian scientists L.S. Voronkov, A.S. Gulasaryan, M.V. Larionova, M. Ragazzi, T.N. Neshataeva, S.A. Bokeriya which discussed the evolution of the institutionalization of world politics and the interaction of international organizations with one another22.

V.N. Fedorov's complex work "United Nations, Other International Organizations and Their Role in the 20th Century"23 analyzed in detail the background and history of the establishment of the UN, the structure and powers of its principal organs, the stages of their development and activities, the main

Журнал экономики и окружающей среды. 2021.Т. 4. №. 1. С. 11-30; ^jji^l Jk ^i

^Vl flkiîl 2ikJl Ял^и. Âj^jIïVIj.: дис. [Арабская региональная система безопасности в условиях международных и региональных переменных]/ Бен Иса Ахмед // Университет Галфы, 2010. 252 c.

21 Подцероб А.Б. Ислам во внутренней и внешней политике стран Магриба: монография/ А.Б. Подцероб. М.: ИБВ, 2009. 212 с.; Малашенко, А.В. Ислам: век XXI: монография / А.В. Малашенко. М.: ИБВ, 2019. 230 с.

22 Воронков Л.С. Международные межправительственные и неправительственные организации в системе международных отношений: монография/ Л.С. Воронков. М.: МГИМО-Университет, 2018. 354 с.; Ларионова М. В. Десятилетия развития ООН (19612000 гг.): эволюция систем оценки в контексте теорий развития/ М.В. Ларионова // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Международные отношения. 2020. Т. 20. № 1. С. 170-183; Ларионова М. В. Вызовы достижения Целей развития тысячелетия (ЦРТ) / М.В. Ларионова // Вестник международных организаций: образование, наука, новая экономика. 2020. Т. 15. № 1. С. 155-176; Ragazzi M. (ed.). Responsibility of International Organizations: Essays in Memory of Sir Ian Brownlie. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013. P. 339387; Bokeriya S. African Union in Addressing Regional Peace and Conflict in Darfur // Asia and Africa Today. 2021. № 1. P. 37-42; Бокерия CA. Основы сотрудничества Лиги арабских государств с ООН / А. Мохаммед, С. А. Бокерия // Вопросы национальных и федеративных отношений. 2021. Т. 11. № 12 (81). С. 3599-3605; Bokeriya S. A. Women's Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Overcoming Barriers // Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development. 2021. P. 207-216.

23 Федоров В.Н. Организация Объединенных Наций, другие международные организации и их роль в XXI веке/ В.Н. Федоров. М.: Логос, 2007. 421 с.

directions of the organization's work, and various aspects of UN cooperation with regional organizations. Also, the works of V.G. Baranovsky, V.A. Kartashkin24 address the problems of the functioning of the UN's principal organs and finding ways of enhancing the effectiveness of the organization in various historical periods.

The works of M.S. Nassar, F.H. Sallumi, D. Panke, S. Stapel, S. Van Heke, and H. Fur25 formed the basis of the theoretical and methodological tools for studying the problems and specifics of interaction between the UN and regional organizations for peace and security, such as the LAS.

Monographs and articles by foreign researchers, such as D.S.H. Hussein, A. Kasom Salim, M. Barnett, M. Bossuyt, A. Faye, B. Fassbender, D. Fram, I. Claude26 and others, were analyzed to cover the subject of the dissertation. The use of these works made it possible to assess the role of LAS and the problems affecting it in the structure of the overall priorities of the UN.

24 Барановский В.Г. ООН и применение военной силы в целях поддержания мира/ В.Г. Барановский // Мировая экономика и международные отношения. 2009. № 1. С. 8-15; Карташкин В.А. Организация Объединенных Наций и международная защита прав человека/ В.А. Карташкин. М.: Изд-во Норма, 2015. 314 с.

25Nassar M.S., Salloumi F.H. The Relationship between the United Nations and Regional Organizations and its Impact on Settling Disputes by all Means of Settlement // Journal of the University of Anbar for Humanities. 2021. Vol. 2. №. 2. P. 584-611; Panke D., Stapel S. Comparing Regional Organizations: Global Dynamics and Regional Particularities. Bristol: Policy Press, 2020. 310 p.; Van Hecke S., Fuhr H., Wolfs W. The Politics of Crisis Management by Regional and International Organizations in Fighting against a Global Pandemic: the Member States at a Crossroads // International Review of Administrative Sciences. 2021. № 87 (3). P. 132145.

26Barnett M. Power in International Politics // International organization. 2005. № 59. P. 39-75; Faye A. Africa frente a la ampliaction del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU // Comercio exterior (Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior). 2005. № 55 (10). P. 874-891; Fassbender B. On the Boulevard of Broken Dreams: the Project of a Reform of the UN Security Council after 2005 World Summit // International Organizations Law Review. 2005. № 2 (2). P. 391-402; Claude I.L. The UN and the Use of the Force // International Conciliation. 1961. № 532. P. 325-384;

Âjlj^ll ^Ajjl rniVl Ajtl^j^Vlj jUJ ^H^ Л ÙJ'"^ . ^xaVl » QJJ l^fll^A SJJJ^J l^N, ^l

[Организация Объединенных Наций между выполнением своих функций и необходимостью их пересмотра] / Дилдар Салех Хама Хусейн // Международный журнал гуманитарных и социальных наук. 2020. №. 12. С. 105-118; l.fj^â, ^jI^i .^Vl »¿^Jl jl£jl^Jl ей Jj^Jl ^Ij^Jl : »^l j^Jl ^i jlj^Vl [ООН и поддержка стабильности из-за рубежа в постконфликтных странах: переосмысление ролей]/ А. Касом Салим // Guelma: Université 8 mai 1945, 2015. 390 c.

The third group is composed of works that address the activities of the LAS, its priorities in terms of regional and global issues and from the perspective of foreign policy partners, particularly the UN.

Works on the LAS from scholars such as L.N. Rudenko, Z.A. Solovyeva, E.S. Melkumyan, V.A. Tsvetkova, M.N. Dudin, and M.A. Molodtsova27 allowed the author to analyze the historical periods of the LAS' activities and its cooperation with the UN.

Also, the writings of G.K. Prozorova28 enabled the author of the dissertation to form an approach to the interpretation of the involvement of the wide network of specialized institutions of LAS in international interactions.

The works of Salah E. Ibrahim, Nasser Kaddur, Mustafa Ould Khalifa, H. Al-Baharna, K. Anderson, R. Badawi, F. Dakhlallah, A. Kettis, B. Maddy-Weizman, and M. Lynch, alongside those of Maher, K. Moussa, M. Nidal, S. Toffolo, O. Sheira, M. Ammash29 reflect the institutional development of the LAS, and the

27 Руденко Л.Н., Соловьева З.А. Лига арабских государств и интеграционные процессы в арабском мире: монография/ Л.Н. Руденко, З.А. Соловьева. М.: ИБВ, 2007. 301 с.; Мелкумян Е.С. Роль Лиги арабских государств в структурировании арабского регионального пространства/ Е.С. Мелкумян //Вестник МГИМО Университета. 2020. № 5 (74). С. 23-41; Мелкумян Е. С. Персидский залив: новые тенденции развития региональной ситуации после «арабской весны»/ Е.С. Мелкумян // Нестабильность геостратегического пространства в странах Ближнего, Среднего и Дальнего Востока: актуальные проблемы. Ежегодник 2019. М.: Институт востоковедения РАН, 2019. С. 133-139; Мелкумян Е. С. Изменение подходов Совета сотрудничества арабских государств залива к проблемам безопасности после «арабской весны» / Е.С. Мелкумян // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 25: Международные отношения и мировая политика. 2021. Т. 13. № 4. С. 105-130; Цветков В.А., Дудин М.Н. Сценарии развития глобальной экономики и основных центров экономического притяжения после окончания пандемии COVID-19 (OECD, BRICS, ASEAN, Лига арабских государств) / В .А. Цветков, М.Н. Дудин// Проблемы рыночной экономики. 2020. №. 2. С. 6-22; Молодцова М.А. Деятельность Лиги арабских государств в области поддержания международного мира и безопасности/ М.А. Молодцова //Московский журнал международного права. 2021. №. 2. С. 127-142.

28 Прозорова Г.К. Россия и региональные организации Ближнего Востока и мусульманского мира //Россия и мусульманский мир. 2010. № 5. С. 66-70.

29 Salah E. Ibrahim, Nasser Kaddour, Moustapha Ould Khalifa. La coopération entre les Nations Unies et la Ligue des Etats arabes. Geneva, 1986. P.10-31; Al-Baharnah H. The Arab League Pact Between Regionalism and Nationalism and the Suggested Amendments (in Arabic) / in The League of Arab States: Reality and Aspiration, 2006. 214 p.; Anderson K. Going Major: Reforming the League of Arab States // Harvard International Review. Cambridge. 2004. Vol. 25. Issue 4. P. 5-14; Dakhlallah F. The League of Arab States and Regional Security: Towards an Arab Security Community? British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 2012. Vol. 39. № 3. P. 393-412; Kettis A. EU-League of Arab States Relations: Prospects for Closer Parliamentary Cooperation.

analyze its interactions with different international organizations at different stages of its development. The theoretical works of Sanan Salah Rashid Al-Salhi, Hadrami Omar30 made it possible for the author to study the LAS' foreign policy activities, its mechanisms to attract foreign partners, and its experience of cooperation with international organizations.

The author examined several dissertations relevant to the subject of this research31. The creative reflection of the study was carried out by Said al-Barami, head of the LAS Mission to the Russian Federation. The thesis which was defended at the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 2003 identified the relationship between the historical experience of the LAS, and the level of national political awareness in its member states32. The problem of Arab unity is the topic of a

European Parliament. DG for External Policies. Policy Department. Policy Briefing. PE 491. May 2013. P. 9-27; Maddy-Weitzman B. The Arab League Comes Alive // Middle East Quarterly Summer. 2012. 278 p.; Lynch M. Making the Arab League Matter // Foreign Policy [Electronic resource] // Foreign Policy. April 8, 2012. URL:

http://www.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/04/08/making_the_arab_League_matter (accessed: 18.07.2021); Maher J. ed. League of Arab States. The Europa world year book / Europa Publications 1 (45 ed.). 2004. P. 121-143; Moussa K. Réforme de la Ligue arabe: la proposition algérienne reste sans écho! // Echorouk [Electronic resource] // Echorouk. 17.04.2018. URL: https://www.echoroukonline.com/reforme-de-la-ligue-arabe-la-proposition-algerienne-reste-sans-echo (accessed: 18.07.2021); Nidhal M. Les États Arabes et la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l'Homme // Arab Law Quarterly. 2009. Vol. 23. № 3. P. 310-319; Toffolo C. The Arab League. Michigan: Infobase Publishing, 2008. 325 p.; Sheira O., Ammash M. Arab League Summit Report. GPoT PU № 10 [Electronic resource] // Global Political Trends Center Istanbul Kultur University. April 2015. URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/189985/Arab-League-Summit-Report_GPoT_PU10.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

30sj*ll jjisll ^Vlj fjit j ùUil^iiVI ^U^VIj [Роль Лиги арабских государств в поддержке политических прав женщин] / Аль-Салхи С.С.Р. // Журнал искусств, литературы, гуманитарных и социальных наук. 2020. №. 56. С. 310-326; j—j^. ^ ^Ы jiîl aJjJI Jj^ll ^Vlj e^^ll: ^j^ [Омар, Х. Международный механизм урегулирования конфликтов Лига арабских государств и Организация Объединенных Наций: Сравнительное исследование] // ^bVl ^jUlj ДД^у! [Журнал искусств и гуманитарных наук]. 2004. Т. 53. №. 1. С. 11-115.

31 Аль-Барами С.М.А. Лига арабских государств. Смена приоритетов: от координации к единству (1945-2001 гг.): дис. ... канд. ист. наук: 07.00.15/ Аль-Барами Саид Мухаммад Али. М., 2003. 155 с.; Арсанова Т.Е. Роль ЮНЕСКО на Ближнем Востоке в современных политических условиях: дис. ... канд. полит. наук: 23.00.04/ Арсанова Татьяна Евгеньевна. М., 2021. 204 с.

32 Аль-Барами С.М.А. Лига арабских государств. Смена приоритетов: от координации к единству (1945-2001 гг.): дис. ... канд. ист. наук: 07.00.15/ Аль-Барами Саид Мухаммад Али. М., 2003. 155 с.

dissertation by M.S. Toubashi Salem33. Also, M.A. Zhambokhoten34 in his dissertation discussed the role of the LAS in resolving the long-running Arab-Israeli conflict.

The analysis of Russian and historiography shows that there is no comprehensive study of UN-LAS relations between 1992 to 2021. The existing body of scientific works on the topic focuses on analyzing aspects of regional security complex and cooperative or competitive relations in the Middle East, much less on the role of the LAS interaction with the UN. This creates a need for research doing a structural analysis of the content and trends in the development of political, economic, and humanitarian relations between the LAS and UN.

The object of the study is the interaction between the UN and the LAS as multifunctional political institutions of global and regional scope, respectively.

The subject of the dissertation focuses on the mechanisms, and content of the political, economic, and humanitarian aspects of the interaction between the LAS and UN.

The aim of this dissertation research is to identify the specifics and priorities of the development of relations between the LAS and the UN. To achieve this goal, this study has the following research objectives:

- Consider the historical background and legal basis of cooperation between the LAS and UN.

- Assess the role of Arab resources in the interaction between the LAS and UN on the socio-economic development of the region and solving security problems.

- Investigate the problems and prospects of cooperation between the LAS and UN in countering traditional and non-traditional security threats.

33Тоубаси Салем М.С. Политическая интеграция как институционализация идеи арабского единства (на примере Лиги арабских государств): дис. ... канд.полит.наук:23.00.04/ Тоубаси Салем М.С. М.,2020. 173 с.

34Жамкочян М.А. Лига арабских государств и проблема палестинского урегулирования в 1945-1967 гг.: дис.. ..кандидат ист. наук:07.00.15/ Жамкочян Мнацакан Арутюни. М., 2003. 144 с.

- Identify the degree of interaction between the LAS and the UN in the financial and economic sphere.

- Evaluate the LAS-UN cooperation in the field of human rights.

- Analyze the cultural and educational aspects of the interaction between the LAS and UN.

The chronological scope of the study covers the period from 1992 to 2021. The lower limit is because in 1992 Egyptian diplomat Boutros Ghali became the first Arab to assume the post of UN Secretary-General. This appointment intensified Arab diplomatic engagements with the UN on a wide range of issues. The importance of maintain close contacts with the LAS has come to be considered by the UN Security Council. The upper boundary of the study was determined by the necessity of examining the current state of UN-LAS interaction in security and sustainable development among others. Also, the author considered it important to refer to data from that date to the present for a more complete discussion of the topic, and to provide a comprehensive answer to the research questions.

The source base of the study. A wide range of Russian, Arabic, English, and French have been considered and analyzed. The sources used for expounding the topic are divided into four groups: legal and regulatory, administrative, public, and statistical.

The first group of sources consists of legal and regulatory documents. This group includes the UN Charter35, the LAS Pact36, and the statutes of the LAS' specialized bodies37. These sources give an insight into the normative foundations of the two international organizations, identify points of convergence for constructive engagement to address the principles, goals, objectives, objectives, and most relevant areas of action set out in the founding acts of both organizations.

35 United Nations Charter. 1945. [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/un-charter/full-text (accessed: 22.06.2021).

36 Ibid.

37 Charter of Arab Cultural Unity. July 25, 1970. [Electronic resource]// The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization web-site. URL: http://www.alecso.org/nsite/en/component/content/article/814-who-are-we-v2?catid=63&Itemid=220 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

Interstate agreements are an important sub-group of sources. The most important agreement for this study is the 1950 Treaty on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation between the States of the LAS38. It constitutes a solid normative framework 39 for Arab interaction in the post-colonial period and prioritizes close cooperation with the UN. Also, international treaties adopted at the UN are implemented in collaboration with regional actors.

Thus, the study of legal and regulatory sources illustrates the basic values and principles underpinning the interaction between the two organizations and provides an analysis of their executive and administrative structures, and the division of powers between them on foreign policy issues.

The second group consists of administrative sources, which includes internal documents such as reports40, roadmaps41, briefs42, and official correspondence between structural units of international organizations43. Such documents that are

38 Treaty of Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation between the States of the Arab League. June 17, 1950. [Electronic resource]// Lillian Goldman Law Library. URL: https://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/arabjoin.asp (accessed: 22.06.2021).

39 The Paris Agreement. 2015. [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/paris-agreement (accessed: 22.06.2021).

40 Trade policy review. Report by the Secretariat of the WTO WT/TPR/S/333. February 29, 2016 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the WTO. URL: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/s333_e.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021); Arabic edition of UNESCO Science Report launched in Cairo [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. 08.02.2019. URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/arabic_edition_of_unesco_science_report_launched_in_cairo/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

41 An Arab plan of action for science and technology. Science policy formulation [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science-technology/science-policy/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

42 United Nations, League of Arab States Recognize World's Expectation for New Social Contract, Cooperative Vision, Secretary-General Tells Security Council [Electronic resource]// ReliefWeb. June 14, 2019. URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/united-nations-league-arab-states-recognize-world-s-expectation-new-social-contract (accessed: 22.06.2021); New STI Agenda reflects aspiration for change in Islamic world [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. 04.12.2017. URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science-technology/single-view-sc-

policy/news/new_sti_agenda_reflects_aspiration_for_change_in_islamic_wor/ (accessed:

22.06.2021); The British House of Lords Select Committee on International Relations [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UK Parliament. URL: https://www.parliament.uk/globalassets/documents/lords-committees/International-Relations-Committee/Middle-East/170703-Response-to-House-of-Lords-Report—FINAL.pdf (accessed: 15.07.2021).

43 Letter dated 10 April 2019 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Tunisia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council [Electronic

relevant to this study are A/73/L.23, A/RES/56/40, and the 2013 Resolution on the Reform of the LAS44. These documents provide objective insight into the diplomatic mechanisms of the LAS and UN in bilateral relations, and the institutional and legal framework in which these institutions pursue their foreign policy objectives.

To study the specific features of interaction between LAS and the UN in human rights, the author systematized and investigated several UN declarations and conventions, which constitute the legal basis and sets a framework for cooperation between the LAS and UN on the issue45.

Documents of LAS field offices directly involved in dialogue with the UN make this research possible. Reports, orders, and memoranda from various LAS departments specifically the Cultural Division and Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Affairs Division are of great importance to the study46.

In general, this group of sources makes it possible to assess the extent to which the two international organizations' concepts are integrated into the political process

resource]// Security Council report. April 25, 2019. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2019_306.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021); Letter dated 18 May 2006 from the Permanent Observer of the League of Arab States to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. March 29, 2006. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-182754/ (accessed: 22.06.2021); Letter dated 25 January 2011 from the Permanent Observer of the League of Arab States to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. January 19, 2011. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-188621/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

44 Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly. A/RES/56/40 [Electronic resource]// Digital Library of the UN. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/454037?ln=ru#record-files-collapse-header (accessed: 22.06.2021); Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2018. A/73/L.23 [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/a_res_73_267.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021); FIDH Resolution to reform the Arab League [Electronic resource]// FIDH. 29.05.2013. URL: https://www.fidh.org/en/international-advocacy/other-regional-organisations/league-of-arab-states/resolution-to-reform-the-arab-league-13801 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

45 Пекинская декларация / Принята четвертой Всемирной конференцией по положению женщин, Пекин, 4-15 сентября 1995 года [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/womdecl.shtml (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

46 ЪЧ [Отдел образования]. 2019. URL: http://www.alecso.org/nsite/en/education (дата обращения: 22.06.2021); ЪЧ [Отдел культуры]. 2019. URL: http://www.alecso.org/nsite/en/culture-bottom (дата обращения: 22.06.2021).

and to identify trends and problems in the interaction between LAS and the UN in practice.

The third group includes public sources represented by official statements and speeches of high-ranking officials, politicians, and diplomats47. To understand the context of bilateral cooperation48, the communiques of LAS leaders at the UN General Assembly's Grand Debate49 where they assess cooperation between the two international organizations are an essential source of data.

Memorandums of Understanding such as the 2002 Beirut Declaration and 2019 Debate on the First Committee on Disarmament provide a comprehensive view of external influences on LAS-UN relationship in specialized areas. The author has

47 Ban Ki-moon's Statements [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/ban-ki-moons-statements (accessed: 22.06.2021); Intervention du Président Jean-Claude Juncker à la séance d'ouverture du sommet Union européenne-Ligue des États arabes. 24 février 2019. [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/fr/SPEECH_19_1408 (accessed: 18.07.2021); Remarks with League of Arab States Secretary General Nabil Elaraby at Memorandum of Understanding Signing [Electronic resource]// US Department of State. 2012. URL: https://2009-2017.state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2012/09/198191.htm (accessed: 18.07.2021); Remarques du Président Juncker à la conférence de presse avec le Président de l'Egypte Al-Sisi, le Président du Conseil européen Tusk et le Secrétaire général de la Ligue des Etats arabes Aboul Gheit, au sommet UE-Ligue des Etats arabes 25 février 2019 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/fr/SPEECH_19_1415 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

48Opening First Committee's General Debate, Delegates Warn of Fragile Security Landscape Laced with Looming Nuclear Threats, Unregulated Weapon Innovations [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. October 10, 2019. URL:

https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/gadis3624.doc.htm (accessed: 22.06.2021); Joint Communication by the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European Commission: A new response to a changing Neighbourhood. May 25, 2011 [Electronic resource]// The Diplomatic Service of the European Union. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en (accessed: 18.07.2021); EU -League of Arab States relations: joint communiqué of the EU Political and Security Committee and the League of Arab States Permanent Representatives [Electronic resource]// Conseil de l'UE. 23 janvier 2020. URL: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/fr/press/press-releases/2020/01/23/eu-league-of-arab-states-relations-joint-communique-of-the-eu-political-and-security-committee-and-the-league-of-arab-states-permanent-representatives/ (accessed: 18.07.2021).

49 Memorandum on the Development of Joint Arab Action presented by 37 Human Rights Organizations. March 20, 2012. [Electronic resource]// Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. URL: http://www.cihrs.org/?p=1889&lang=en (accessed: 18.07.2021).

examined several other declarations to explore the process of cooperation50 between these organizations and identify medium-term trends in its development.

The fourth group consists of statistical documents prepared by specialized international organizations and private statistics offices. The author consulted databases from the International Monetary Fund51, World Bank52, International Trade Center53, Knoema Statistics Database54, UN Population Fund55, and the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia56. The analysis of statistical data helped the author to examine the current macroeconomic situation in Arab countries and form an informed opinion on the scope of economic and humanitarian cooperation between the UN and LAS. In analyzing this group of sources, the author examined the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from LAS countries.

Thus, the provided source base is representative and the selected topic to be explored in a focused and comprehensive manner.

50 Beirut Declaration on Saudi Peace Initiative. March 28, 2002 [Electronic resource]// Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. URL: https://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/peace/guide/pages/beirut%20declaration%20on%20sa udi%>20peace%>20initiative%>20-%>2028-.aspx (accessed: 22.06.2021); Cairo Declaration. Second European Union-League of Arab States Foreign Affairs Ministerial Meeting. Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt. November 13, 2012. Union for the Mediterranean. URL: https://ufmsecretariat.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/cairo_ declaration.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021); La déclaration conjointe relative à l'Irak. 2014. [Electronic resource]// The Diplomatic Service of the European Union. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en (accessed: 18.07.2021).

51 World Economic Outlook Database [Electronic resource]// IMF. April 2021. URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WE0/weo-database/2021/April (accessed: 22.06.2021); Regional Economic Outlook for Western Hemisphere [Electronic resource]// IMF. April 15, 2021. URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/RE0 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

52 Global Spread of Conflict by Country and Population [Electronic resource]// The World Bank. URL: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/spread-conflict-data (accessed: 15.07.2021); MENA development report: Better governance for development in the Middle East and North Africa: Enhancing inclusiveness and accountability. Washington: The World Bank, 2003. 185 p.

53 The league of Arab States: A regional perspective [Electronic resource]// International Trade Center. October 1, 2012. URL: https://www.intracen.org/article/The-league-of-Arab-States-A-regional-perspective/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

54 Рейтинг мирового ВВП на душу населения 2019 года по странам на основе данных МВФ [Электронный ресурс]// Knoema. URL: https://knoema.ru/atlas/ranks/%D0%92%D0%92%D0%9F (accessed: 22.06.2021).

55 State of World Population 2021 [Electronic resource]// United Nations Population Fund. 2021. URL: https://www.unfpa.org/sowp-2021 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

56 Survey of Economic and Social Developments in the Arab Region 2020-2021: Summary [Electronic resource]// United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. July 2021. URL: https://www.unescwa.org/publications/survey-economic-social-developments-2020-2021 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

The multidimensional nature of the study's research problem determined the selection of its methodology. In addressing the research problem, the author relied on structural realism. The advantage of this theory of international relations is that it provides an analytical perspective in which all historical phenomena and processes are considered part of a system. The key variables in this theory are the environment, which imposes restrictions on international actors, and context by which the interaction of actors is understood. This theory made it possible to analyze the interaction between the LAS and UN as a single system consisting of three subsystems: political, economic, and humanitarian. Changes in the context of interaction between both organizations, occurring in each area under the influence of the internal and external environment, have been studied as functioning processes of the whole system.

In selecting these sources, the author used the principles of historicity, objectivity, credibility, and systematicity. Historicity made it possible to consider the current state of interaction between the LAS and UN, to establish causal links, identify emerging trends and patterns in the study of the research problem, and to examine their development and interrelationships. Objectivity allowed historical facts to be examined in terms of objective regularities. Credibility ensures that the thesis relied on facts and studied the positive and negative aspects of each phenomenon.

The thesis has an interdisciplinary approach, which allows the use of historical and political methods in addition to historical research methodology.

Research Methods. General and historical research methods have been applied in this research. The general methods applied include the dialectic method of scientific knowledge, formal logic, and statistical methods.

Historical comparison made it possible to identify the commonalities and differences between the institutional features of the LAS and UN during the period under study and based on this identify the main trends in bilateral cooperation. This method also made it possible to draw conclusions on the changes that have happened

in the political, economic, and humanitarian aspects of cooperation between the LAS and UN.

Historical typology helped classify the types of foreign policy relations between the LAS and UN. Also, the institutional method has made it possible to clarify the functions of state institutions and the structural units of international organizations, which determine the foreign policy activities of these actors, and are responsible for cooperation on a wide range of issues.

Thus, these general and specific methods of historical analysis with their comprehensive and in-depth approach, accuracy, and reliability, made it possible to study the main aspects of the dissertation.

The scientific novelty of the thesis research is as follows:

- the evolution of the legal framework of cooperation between the UN and the LAS since 1945 was considered, the distinctive features of the present stage of interaction between the two organizations were revealed for the first time; the influence of changes in the global system of international relations on their nature and content was discovered;

- the role of the UN institutions (the Security Council, the First UN Committee, the Secretary-General and the General Assembly) in addressing regional security issues in the Middle East; the factors that contributed to the convergence of the League of Arab States and the UN to maintain stability in the region in the context of the Arab Spring (2011) and the migration crisis in Europe (2015) were established;

- the cause-effect relationship between the level of interaction between the two organizations and the degree of their response to the challenges of traditional and non-traditional threats (water scarcity, rapid population growth, terrorism, refugee problems) in the Middle East region was identified;

- the degree of influence of the largest energy exporters from the member states of the Arab League on the process of interaction between the LAS and the UN in the field of accelerating the global energy transition, sustainable development and social stability in the Middle East region was determined;

- the UN and LAS model of cooperation on human and civil rights in the Arab world was found and its effectiveness was assessed, allowing the UN contribution to the process of institutionalization of the Arab Committee on Human Rights and monitoring of its performance on key issues in this field to be evaluated.

The novelty of the research is also related to the analysis of the UN role in solving the complex issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Arab world, which opened a new area of cooperation between the two organizations.

A wide range of sources in Russian, English and Arabic, many of which are being introduced into scientific parlance for the first time, provided a comprehensive study of the basis of political, economic and humanitarian aspects of the interaction between the League of Arab States and the United Nations. Key points for presentation: 1. A relevant and long-term factor in cooperation between the League of Arab States and the UN is the ownership of Arab countries of the richest hydrocarbon deposits, especially oil and gas. At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries the region contains 60% of the world's oil and 30% of gas reserves. Stability of pricing in the world energy market and, consequently, the volume of global industrial growth largely depends on the LAS member countries. The oil export earnings contribute to the extraordinary growth of the accumulation funds of most of the Arab countries. The oil-exporting countries of the LAS have received substantial support to increase their social and economic development and change their place in the global economy. The oil factor thus influences the political, military-strategic and socio-economic situation in the Arab region. The LAS countries have an opportunity to develop and implement economic reform programs not only in their own countries, but also in the countries that do not have energy resources. The reforms will enhance the chances of accelerating the energy transition and create new jobs for a large part of the unemployed population, which will require intensification of the LAS interaction with the UN and its specialized agencies and will contribute to the reduction of security problems in the region.

2. The League of Arab States' cooperation with the UN promotes the modernization of regional economies that differ in their degree of openness to the market mechanisms. The LAS also uses cooperation with the UN to realize its own socio-economic objectives and to coordinate policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. The most promising format of interaction in this area is the Economic and Social Councils of the League of Arab States. The current issues of interaction between regional and universal organizations include the promotion of economic prosperity in the Gaza Strip, support for the electrification process and the construction of railroads.

3. Cooperation between the UN and the LAS on the relevant aspect of the humanitarian agenda, such as the protection of human rights, is of fundamental importance for the Arab countries, whose political culture differs from the standards that have developed because of the long historical evolution of the Anglo-Saxon legal system. Interaction with the UN in the field of human rights allows the League of Arab States to adopt experiences and standards that are recognized as universal, stimulating the solution of emerging problems in close cooperation with the international community. The reasons for the continuing human rights problems in the Arab world are the weakness of state regimes, the immaturity of political culture, and its fundamental difference from the West, which is manifested in features such as "clientelism" in political and social relations. This feature is perceived negatively by the Western international organizations. The position of the Arab League on the human rights violations in the region, both before and after the Arab Spring, is determined solely by political considerations.

4. Interaction between the League of Arab States and the UN in the field of culture and education promotes inter-civilizational dialogue. This has made it possible to take control of the processes of adaptation and integration of migrants into the Western societies in the context of the migration crisis and the growing flow of refugees from the Middle East. In practical terms, cooperation between the LAS and the UN is carried out through contacts between specialized bodies. These are the UNESCO and the Arab Culture Standing Committee of the Arab League

Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). The LAS and the UN cultural and educational activities include promoting literacy, learning the Arabic language, exploring educational methodologies, and matching the Arab national education systems with the global standards.

5. LAS countries face traditional and non-traditional security threats, as such interaction with an international organization competent in this field meets the interests and needs of all concerned. The most pressing traditional challenges are the Iranian nuclear program and Saudi Arabia-Iran rivalry, which has had a negative impact on regional conflicts. The Palestinian problem and US influence in the region also contribute immensely to the security challenges that regional states face. Collaboration with the UN is necessary for the LAS, as the former has extensive experience in dealing with these problems and has authority. Among the most effective mechanisms for cooperation between the LAS and the UN is the involvement of the UN Security Council to present judgments on the regional security situation. Interaction with the UN Security Council and UN General Assembly adds political weight to the decisions and proposals of the LAS, which are made and formulated at the organization's summits.

6. Cooperation on non-security challenges to the LAS and UN has become more relevant in recent times. The ongoing War on Terror which the US started in 2001 and 2011 Arab Spring, destabilized the domestic political situation in man Arab States. Also, the resulting 2015 Migration Crisis caused by the intensifying regional conflict have become key milestones in the current state of non-traditional security affairs. To combat these threats, the LAS needs a reliable partner who will monitor, provide advice and expertise, carry out humanitarian missions, while respecting the sovereignty of Arab States. The LAS has found such a partner in the UN and its specialized organizations (UNHCR, WHO, UNDP, etc.) which the LAS is leveraging to increase the impact of state-led initiatives.

7. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic served as a test case for all LAS members, revealing gaps in health systems, lack of coordinated responses in extreme and unpredictable situations, and started the search for an optimal balance between

these countries' economic needs and addressing non-traditional security threats. At the same time, these new conditions enable the LAS and UN to develop new formats of interaction and give new content to established areas of cooperation in addressing non-traditional security threats. The UN and WHO closely monitor the situation, provide information for LAS countries, and direct humanitarian assistance while adapting to changing realities.

The theoretical significance of the thesis is that the author collected, compiled, and systematized significant factual material on the interaction between the LAS and UN. The author's research on the relationship of the LAS and UN from 1992 to 2021 opens the way for further scientific examination on more specific aspects of the issue for making general forecasts about developments between the two organizations, and on various general issues.

Arabic, French, and English-language scientific sources contributed to the comprehensive research on the subject. In addition, the theoretical value of the study is reinforced by the possibility of using its results in research, practice, and teaching. The main points of the study may be of interest to researchers dealing with political, economic, and humanitarian issues in the Middle East, as well as to specialists studying international organizations such as the LAS and UN.

The practical significance of the study is because its results and conclusions can be used in further research on international relations at the global and regional levels, as well as analyzing the activities of the LAS and UN in retrospect and at present. The results may also be useful in the preparation of courses and lectures at universities or disciplines related to political developments in the Middle East and North Africa, institutional organizations in the Arab World, the specifics of UN coordination with regional organizations, and the modalities of cooperation between the UN and LAS.

The main points and conclusions of the study may be of interest to Russian authorities involved in the development and implementation of Russian foreign policy both in the UN and in the Middle East.

The validity of the results of the study, as well as the validity of the conclusions reached in its framework derives from the use of a broad source base, representative historiography, systematic approach to problem analysis and the use of various of scientific methods of research.

Validation of research results. The main theses of the study were discussed and approved at the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. The basic provisions were presented at inter-university, and international conferences.

The main results and conclusions of the dissertation are presented in 3 scientific publications, including 2 articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from the RUDN University list, and 1 article in the journal included in the international citation databases such as Scopus and Web of Science.

Work structure. The dissertation includes an introduction, three chapters, a conclusion, a list of sources and literature.

Заключение диссертации по теме «История международных отношений и внешней политики», Альмуаллем Мохаммад

CONCLUSION

Within the framework of this thesis, a comprehensive systematic analysis of the relationship between the LAS and the UN was carried out in terms of their content and main development trends. To achieve the research objective, the author addressed a wide range of issues in the relationship between the two organizations during the period under review, as well as engaging a wide range of sources and academic literature in Russian, English, French and Arabic.

Cooperation between the LAS and the UN system throughout their history of interaction has included the following: mutual consultation and coordination of activities in areas of common interest; joint action on certain specific projects (within the framework of the LAS and its specialized agencies or for the benefit of member states); conclusion of agreements; information and documentation exchange; exchange of visits; participation in conferences and meetings; organization of symposia and seminars; provision of experts, training and fellowships; preparation of reports and publication of bulletins and statistics; provision of scientific and technical knowledge and equipment; as well as project financing and assistance. Several potential areas for enhanced cooperation have been identified in consultations with the UN organizations and specialized agencies and the LAS and its specialized organizations throughout the history of cooperation. Many UN organizations have functional areas where, in accordance with established UN procedures, measures could be taken to improve and expand cooperation with the LAS.

It has been proved that the LAS, through its various bodies, such as the Council of Arab Ministers of Social Affairs, the Council of Arab Ministers of Justice, the Council of Arab Ministers of Health, the Department of Human Rights, etc., cooperates with relevant UN entities. Analyzing the interaction between the United Nations and the LAS over half a century of history, the author has concluded that the priority areas are the economic, security, educational and cultural spheres. In terms of the cooperation mechanism, the UN agencies are cooperating with the LAS and the Arab specialized agencies at the regional level by organizing seminars

and meetings, providing fellowships for training, preparation of research and documents, collection of information and statistics and recruitment of experts. This group of phenomena can be interpreted as an indicator of diplomatic capital building to address pressing problems in the LAS countries.

The author has established that oil power has both positive and negative aspects in terms of interaction with the UN. On the one hand, the LAS countries have the potential as the largest exporters in the energy market, on which the stability of prices and industrial growth of the world depend. On the other hand, hydrocarbon producers in the LAS countries are excessively dependent on hydrocarbon revenues, which affects the delicate equilibrium between the economic and political intersections of these countries, as well as the attempts to diversify their economies. However, since the fall in oil prices in 2014, the LAS countries have adopted ambitious economic reform programs that provide a positive perspective on the prospects for their implementation. The EU has been actively engaged in this process. It was added the need to follow the UN policy direction, in addition to the need to mitigate the risk of instability in the energy market: accelerating the global energy transition (and hence the long-term sustainability of revenues from hydrocarbon exports) and the need to create jobs for the large and young population, which will improve the welfare of the population and reduce protest. The combination of these three arguments may well prove decisive for the strong commitment of the hydrocarbon leaders in LAS to their respective economic diversification strategies. In this case, the global energy transition could be a positive contribution for the MENA hydrocarbon exporters, an incentive to consider economic diversification as an inevitable path to follow, to guarantee future economic prosperity in any scenario and therefore even in the low-carbon scenario of the world.

Traditional security concerns far outweigh non-traditional challenges. Iran's nuclear program, a growing rivalry for regional influence between Iran and Saudi Arabia that is spreading negative resonance to conflicts in the region are among these challenges. The US influence in the region has also contributed immensely to the

security challenges facing the region's states. All these problems are highlighted at the LAS summits. The League seeks to solve these problems by attracting the UN diplomatic capital. The involvement of the UN Security Council to present judgements on the regional security situation, interaction with the UN General Assembly as a representative body to give political weight to the decisions and proposals of the League, which are made and formulated at the Organization's summits are among the most effective mechanisms of cooperation between the LAS and the UN. In addition, the Office of the UN Secretary-General, which participates in the LAS summits and reports to the Security Council, plays a fundamental role. The significance of the UN First Committee as a negotiating forum for disarmament is worth noting. However, the initiative to make the Middle East a nuclear-weapon-free zone remains on the table, because of the competition between the regional power centres and the perceived threshold of one of them.

The most important aspects in combating non-traditional security threats are coordination of counter-terrorism efforts, assistance in resolving the migration crisis, support for regions experiencing acute shortages of drinking water, and high population growth. Religious terrorism has a significant impact on the social and political processes of the Middle East region. The problem of migrants is compounded by the existence of large-scale politico-military crises that encourage new flows of refugees from hot spots. Countries such as Syria, Libya and Yemen are worst off. The UN and the specialized organizations (the UNHCR, WHO, UNDP, etc.) provide advice, material, administrative and organizational assistance to the LAS countries struggling with non-traditional threats. Nowadays, the most pressing issue has been the fight against the spread of COVID-19. The UN and the WHO closely monitor the situation and provide information for the actions of the LAS countries, legitimizing the rigid laws of regional governments. In general, it can be summed up that the problems in the humanitarian sphere offer positive prospects for cooperation between the LAS and the UN to overcome them. In cooperation between the two organizations, the LAS acts as a recipient and the UN as a donor and coordinator of international assistance.

It has been found that economic cooperation between the LAS and the UN is based on domestic prerequisites and is stimulated by an objective law of economic development. The LAS seeks to modernize its own economies, which differ in their openness to market mechanisms. As a means of modernization, the LAS sees cooperation with the UN and relevant organizations. The Economic and Social Council of the LAS is the most promising format for interaction. The promotion of economic prosperity in the Gaza Strip and support for electrification and the construction of railways are topical issues of interaction between regional and universal organizations.

From a human rights perspective, it has been established that the root causes of controversy are the weakness of state regimes, the immaturity of political culture and its principled divergence from the West, as exemplified, for example, by the paternalism of power and society. This trait is perceived in the Western international organizations as the corruption of local bureaucracies. To address the emerging problems of human rights violations, as well as to monitor this area, the LAS has prepared an institutional response through the establishment of the Arab Committee for Human Rights, which works with the UN and implements the recommendations of its relevant institutions. At the same time, the LAS position on human rights violations before and during the Arab Spring continues to be determined by political rather than a coherent and systematic human rights policy. The LAS' greatest current concern is gender inequality and sexual violence. The work to overcome this problem requires closer cooperation between the two organizations.

It has been proved that cooperation between the LAS and the UN in the field of culture and education is carried out through contacts between specialized bodies. These bodies are those of the UNESCO and the Permanent Committee for Arab Culture of the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). The most sought-after areas of interaction are the teaching of the Arabic language, promotion of literacy, testing of educational methods and harmonization of Arab education systems with the world standards. The role of the UNESCO in the

LAS cooperation ranges from the provision of administrative resources to the preparation of review reports.

The author found that first, cooperation between the UN and the LAS is pragmatic and mutually beneficial in the economic sphere. The LAS uses collaboration with the UN to pursue its own socio-economic goals and coordinate policies to achieve the SDGs. The LAS established the Economic and Social Council of the LAS to work directly with the UN to attract capital to the states of the Arab East and to promote the region's infrastructure development. Secondly, the greatest obstacle is the internal political instability in the promotion of human rights and freedoms of the Arab States, which forces the UN to provide not so much substantive assistance to the most vulnerable groups as to state structures, responsible for monitoring respect for human rights and freedoms in the LAS area. Thirdly, the interaction in culture and education is positive and constructive, enabling the strengthening of national specialized bodies and encouraging the LAS countries to cooperate in the least politicized area for positive potential in other dimensions of interaction.

During this research, the author found that first, in traditional security threats, the most relevant issues for cooperation between the LAS and the UN were unresolved conflicts, humanitarian crises and disarmament issues. Second, the complex of non-traditional threats creates conditions for humanitarian crises and contributes significantly to the destabilization of the region. Third, security relationship between the LAS and the EU ranges from protracted regional conflicts to countering terrorism and the humanitarian consequences of socio-economic crises. These themes outline the main areas of concern in the region and provide an opportunity for the LAS countries to coordinate their positions before discussing them in dialogue with the United Nations or its relevant agencies and bodies.

Список литературы диссертационного исследования кандидат наук Альмуаллем Мохаммад, 2022 год

LIST OF SOURCES AND LITERATURE

I. SOURCES

Official Documents:

In Russian:

1. Арабская конвенция о пресечении терроризма 1998 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт Офиса ООН по правовым вопросам. Режим доступа:

https://legal.un.org/cod/books/russian/terrorism_handbook_vol 1.pdf (дата обращения: 30.01.2022).

2. Арабская конвенция о борьбе с отмыванием денег и финансированием терроризма 2010 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт Офиса ООН по правовым вопросам. Режим доступа: https://legal.un.org/cod/books/russian/terrorism_handbook_vol 1.pdf (дата обращения: 10.01.2021).

3. Арабская хартия прав человека 1994 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Библиотека по правам человека университета Миннесоты. Режим доступа: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/arabcharter.html (дата обращения: 15.02.2021).

4. Всеобщая декларация прав человека 1948 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights (дата обращения: 15.02.2021).

5. Всеобщая исламская декларация прав человека [Электронный ресурс]//Библиотека по правам человека университета Миннесоты. Режим доступа: https://www.worldislamlaw.ru/?p=2671 (дата обращения: 11.02.2021).

6. Декларация об искоренении насилия в отношении женщин: [принята резолюцией 48/104 Генеральной Ассамблеи от 20 декабря 1993 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа:

https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/violence.shtml (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

7. Декларация прав ребенка: [принята резолюцией 1386 (XIV) Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН от 20 ноября 1959 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/childdec.shtml (дата обращения: 13.07.2021).

8. Декларация тысячелетия Организации Объединенных Наций: [принята резолюцией 55/2 Генеральной Ассамблеи от 8 сентября 2000 года. ООН. Декларации]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа:

https ://www. un. org/ru/documents/ded_conv/declarations/summitdecL shtml (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

9. Договор об обороне ЛАГ 1950 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Сайт «Исламская мысль (Исламское право)». Режим доступа: https://www.worldislamlaw.ru/?p=128 (дата обращения: 17.07.2021).

10. Доклад Генерального секретаря ООН «Сотрудничество между Организацией Объединенных Наций и региональными и другими организациями» A/73/328-S/2018/592 от 17.08.2018 [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://clck.yandex.ru/redir/nWO_r1F33ck?data=NnBZTWRhdFZKOHRaT ENS (дата обращения: 18.07.2021).

11.Каирская декларация прав человека: документ A/45/421 Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН [Электронный ресурс]// Сайт издательского дома «Медина». Режим доступа: http://www.idmedina.ru/books/history_culture/minaret/16/declaracia-02.htm (дата обращения: 19.07.2021).

12.Международный билль о правах человека [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа:

https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/hr_bill.shtml (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

13. Международная конвенция о борьбе с финансированием терроризма: [принята резолюцией 54/109 Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН от 9 декабря 1999 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/ (дата обращения: 19.08.2021).

14.Международная конвенция о борьбе с бомбовым терроризмом: [принята резолюцией 52/164 Генеральной Ассамблеи от 16 декабря 1997 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https :/https: //www.un о^/гиМоситеПБМес1_со^/со^еп1:юш/ЬотЫ^. sht т! (дата обращения: 19.08.2021).

15. Международная конвенция о борьбе с захватом заложников 1979 г.: [принята резолюцией 34/146 Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН от 17 декабря 1979 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/hostages.shtml (дата обращения: 19.08.2021).

16. Международные документы, касающиеся предупреждения и пресечения международного терроризма. ООН. Нью-Йорк, 2019 [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт Офиса ООН по правовым вопросам. Режим доступа:

https://legal.un.org/cod/books/russian/terrorism_handbook_vol 1.pdf (дата обращения: 19.08.2021).

17.Пакт Лиги арабских государств от 22 марта 1945 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Сайт «Исламская мысль». Режим доступа: https://www.worldislamlaw.ru/ (дата обращения: 21.08.2021).

18.Пекинская декларация: [принята четвертой Всемирной конференцией по положению женщин, Пекин, 4-15 сентября 1995 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа:

https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/womdecl.shtml (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

19. Полный текст соглашений «Соглашений Авраама», подписанных ОАЭ, Израилем и Бахрейном [Электронный ресурс]// Трансляриум. Режим доступа: https://www.translarium.info/2020/09/abraham-accords-declaration.html (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

20. Поправка к Арабской конвенции о пресечении терроризма 2008 года [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт Офиса ООН по правовым вопросам. Режим доступа: https://legal.un.org/cod/books/russian/terrorism_handbook_vol 1.pdf (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

21.Резолюция ООН А^^/36/24 «Сотрудничество между ООН и Лигой арабских государств»: [принята 9 ноября 1981 г.]. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/ga/36/docs/36res.shtml (дата обращения: 10.06.2021).

22.Резолюция СБ ООН A/RES/37/17 «Сотрудничество между ООН и Лигой арабских государств» от 16 ноября 1982 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/ru/ga/37/docs/37res.shtml (дата обращения: 10.06.2021).

23.Резолюция СБ ООН 1373 «Об угрозах международному миру и безопасности от террористических актов»: [принята Советом Безопасности на 4385-м заседании 28 сентября 2001 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Электронный фонд правовых и нормативно-технических документов. Режим доступа: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/901818429 (дата обращения: 10.06.2021).

24.Резолюция СБ ООН 1973 «О гражданской войне в Ливии»: [принята Советом Безопасности на его 6498-м заседании 17 марта 2011 года]. [Электронный ресурс]// Система официальных документов ООН. Режим

доступа: https://documents-dds-

ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/Nn/268/41/PDF/Nm6841.pdf?OpenElemen t (дата обращения: 10.06.2021). a. На английском языке:

25.Charter ofArab Cultural Unity. July 25, 1970 [Electronic resource]// The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization web-site. URL: http://www. alecso. org/nsite/en/component/content/article/814-who-are-we-v2?catid=63&Itemid=220 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

26.Charter of Arab League. March 22, 1945 [Electronic resource]// League of Arab States. URL: https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3ab18.html (accessed: 22.06.2021).

27.Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt. 2014 [Electronic resource]// Constitute Project. URL: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Egypt_2014.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

28.Saudi Arabia's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2005 [Electronic resource]// Constitute Project. URL:

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Saudi_Arabia_2005.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

29.The Paris Agreement. 2015 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/paris-agreement (accessed: 22.06.2021).

30.Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. September 25, 2015 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://sdgs.un.org/2030agenda (accessed: 22.06.2021).

31.Treaty of Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation between the States of the Arab League. June 17, 1950 [Electronic resource]// Lillian Goldman Law Library. URL: https://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/arabjoin.asp (accessed: 22.06.2021).

32.United Nations Charter. 1945 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/un-charter/full-text (accessed: 22.06.2021).

Делопроизводственные

33. Соглашение между ООН и ЮНЕСКО от 6 декабря 1946 г. [Электронный ресурс]// Цифровая библиотека ЮНЕСКО. Режим доступа: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125590_rus (дата обращения: 10.06.2021).

34. Устав Организации Объединенных Наций по вопросам образования, науки и культуры [Электронный ресурс]// Цифровая библиотека ЮНЕСКО. Режим доступа: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125590_rus (дата обращения: 20.05.2021).

35. Факультативный протокол к Конвенции о правах ребенка, касающийся участия детей в вооруженных конфликтах: [принят резолюцией 54/263 Генеральной Ассамблеи от 25 мая 2000 года]. [Электронный ресурс]//Официальный сайт ООН. URL: https: //www. un. org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/rightschild_protoc ol1.shtml (дата обращения: 15.07.2021).

Публицистические:

36. Антониу Гуттериш: У ООН и Лиги арабских государств - общая миссия [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа: https://news.un.org/ru/story/2019/06/1357301 (дата обращения: 04.05.2021).

37.Видеообращение Генерального секретаря ООН по случаю вступления в силу Договора о запрещении ядерного оружия [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 22.01.2021. Режим доступа: https: //www. un. org/sg/ru/content/sg/statement/2021 -01 -22/secretary-

generals-video-message-the-occasion-of-the-entry-force-of-the-treaty-the-ргоЫЬШоп-о^писЬаг^еарош (дата обращения: 20.03.2021).

38. Интервью эксперта ЮНЕСКО: традиционное образование становится другим [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 12.09.2020. Режим доступа: https://news.un.org/ru/interview/2020/09/1385562 (дата обращения: 08.03.2021).

39. Одре Азуле: Перестроить свое отношение к другим людям, планете и технологиям [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 23.01.2022. Режим доступа: https://news.un.org/ru/interview/2022/01/1417112 (дата обращения: 17.11.2021).

40.Послание Генерального секретаря ООН по случаю Всемирного дня беженцев [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 22.06.2021. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/sg/ru/content/secretary-generals-message-world-refugee-day-together-we-heal-learn-and-shine-scroll-down-for-french-version (дата обращения: 21.11.2021).

41. Послание Генерального секретаря ООН по случаю дня сотрудничества Юг-Юг Организации Объединенных Наций [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 12.09.2016. Режим доступа: http://www.un.org/ru/sg/messages/2016/south-south.shtml (дата обращения: 11.10.2021).

42. Послание Генерального секретаря ООН по случаю Международного дня борьбы за ликвидацию нищеты [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 17.10.2021. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/sg/ru/node/260132 (дата обращения: 15.11.2021).

43. Послание Генерального секретаря ООН по случаю Международного дня борьбы за полную ликвидацию ядерного оружия [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 26.09.2021. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/sg/ru/node/259502 (дата обращения: 28.09.2021).

44. Послание Генерального секретаря ООН по случаю Международного дня ненасилия [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. 02.10.2021. Режим доступа: https://www.un.org/sg/ru/node/259847 (дата обращения: 28.10.2021).

На английском языке

45.About the EU and the League of Arab States Relations [Electronic resource]//EU Neighbours. 04.02.2019. URL: https://www.euneighbours.eu/en/south/stay-informed/news/about-eu-and-league-arab-states-relations (accessed: 18.07.2021).

46.An Arab plan of action for science and technology. Science policy formulation [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science-technology/science-policy/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

47.Arab Human Development Report 2002 to 2009 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNDP. URL: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/rbas_ahdr2002_en.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

48. Arab League Council Resolution. №2 1018. 01.10.1955 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document-source/league-of-arab-states-las/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

49. Arab League Council Resolution. № 286. 01.04.1950 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document-source/league-of-arab-states-las/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

50.Arab League Council Resolution. № 290. 01.04.1950 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document-source/league-of-arab-states-las/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

51.Arab Strategic Report 2004-2005. Cairo: Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2005. 32 p.

52.Arabic edition of UNESCO Science Report launched in Cairo [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. 08.02.2019. URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/arabic_edition_of_unesco_science_report_launched_in_cairo/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

53.Combatting corruption: Constitutional frameworks for the Middle East and North Africa. New York: The Centre for Constitutional Transitions, the Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance and the United Nations Development Programme, 2014. 225 p.

54.Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and other organizations: report of the Secretary-General A/75/345-S/2020/898. September 11, 2020 [Electronic resource]// UN Digital Library. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/3886100?ln=ru (accessed: 22.06.2021).

55.Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States A_RES_36/24. 1981 [Electronic resource]// UN Documents. URL: https://undocs.org/en/AZRES/36/24 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

56.Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States A_RES_37/17. 1982 [Electronic resource]// UN Digital Library. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/39514?ln=ar (accessed: 22.06.2021).

57.Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States A_RES_38/6. 1983 [Electronic resource]// UN Documents. URL: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/38/6 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

58.COVID-19: UNODC provides assistance across the Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource]// UN Office on Drugs and Crime. June 8, 2020. URL: https: //www. unodc. org/unodc/en/frontpage/2020/June/covid-19_-victims-of-human-trafficking-left-unemployed-in-vietnam.html (accessed: 15.07.2021).

59.Education for All: Regional Synthesis Report of the 2015 National Reviews in the Arab States Region [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. 2015. URL:

http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Doha/pdf/UN ESCOEFAReviewArabStatesENG.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

60.English Version of the Statute of the Arab Court of Human Rights [Electronic resource]// Arab Center for International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Education. 2004. URL: https://acihl.org/texts.htm?article_id=44 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

61.EU-LAS Cooperation [Electronic resource]// League of Arab States. 2012. URL:

http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/62fb54804d6d38338bf29f4eaeef 6d81/EULAS+Cooperation.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (accessed: 18.07.2021).

62.Exploratory Report "The silence I carry: Disclosing gender-based violence in forced displacement" 2018 [Electronic resource]// UNHCR ACNUR. URL: https://www.acnur.org/publications/pub_prot/5c081eae4/the-silence-i-carry-disclosing-gender-based-violence-in-forced-displacement.html (accessed: 15.07.2021).

63.FIDH Resolution to reform the Arab League [Electronic resource]// FIDH. 29.05.2013. URL: https://www.fidh.org/en/international-advocacy/other-regional-organisations/league-of-arab-states/resolution-to-reform-the-arab-league-13801 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

64.General Assembly Adopts 10 Resolutions Encouraging Stronger Ties between Regional Organizations, United Nations to Address Global Challenges [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. November 21, 2016. URL: https://www.un.org/press/en/2016/ga11859.doc.htm (accessed: 22.06.2021).

65.General Assembly resolution "Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States" A/73/L.23. December 22, 2018 [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/a_res_73_267.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

66.International migration in the Arab region and suggestions for key actions [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. 2012. URL: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/events/coord ination/3/docs/P15_Arab-League.pdf (accessed: 15.07.2021).

67.Israel's Foreign Relations Selected Documents. Vol. 3. 1974-1977 [Electronic resource]// Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. URL: https://mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/mfadocuments/yearbook2/pages/table% 20of%20contents.aspx (accessed: 22.06.2021).

68.Letter dated 10 April 2019 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Tunisia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. April 25, 2019. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2019_306.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

69.Letter dated 18 May 2006 from the Permanent Observer of the League of Arab States to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. March 29, 2006. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-182754/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

70.Letter dated 25 January 2011 from the Permanent Observer of the League of Arab States to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. January 19, 2011. URL: https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-188621/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

71.Nations in reply to the resolution (document S/902) adopted at the 338th meeting of the Security Council on 15 July 1948 [Electronic resource]// UN Digital Library. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/647735?ln=ru (accessed: 22.06.2021).

72.New STI Agenda reflects aspiration for change in Islamic world [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. 04.12.2017. URL:

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science-technology/single-view-sc-

policy/news/new_sti_agenda_reflects_aspiration_for_change_in_islamic_wo r/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

73.Partnership for Progress and a Common Future with the Region of the Broader Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource]// USA Bureau of Public Affairs. June 9, 2004. URL: https://2001-2009.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/fs/33375.htm (accessed: 18.07.2021).

74.Regional Programme on Drug Control, Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Reforming the Arab States 2011-2015 [Electronic resource]// UN Office on Drugs and Crime. URL: https ://www. unodc. org/documents/middleeastandnorthafrica/Regional-Programme-doc/RPArabStates.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

75.Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992 A/47/277-S/24111 "An Agenda for Peace" [Electronic resource]// UN Documents. June 17, 1992. URL: http://www.un-documents.net/a47-277.htm (accessed: 22.06.2021).

76.Riyadh Summit Decision № 365. March 29, 2007 [Electronic resource]// UN Documents. URL: https://undocs.org/pdf?symbol=en/A/67/725 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

77.SESAME, a visionary endeavour in science and diplomacy [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. May 16, 2017. URL: https://en.unesco.org/sesame-history (accessed: 22.06.2021).

78.Situation Report on International Migration 2019. The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration in the Context of the Arab Region [Electronic resource]// United Nations and International Organization for Migration. 2019. URL:

https://undocs.org/pdf?symbol=en/E/ESCWA/SDD/2019/3 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

79.Supplement to an Agenda for Peace: position paper of the Secretary-General on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations A/50/60-S/1995/1 [Electronic resource]// UN Digital Library. January 25, 1995. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/168325 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

80.The British House of Lords Select Committee on International Relations [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UK Parliament. URL: https://www.parliament.uk/globalassets/documents/lords-committees/International-Relations-Committee/Middle-East/170703-Response-to-House-of-Lords-Report—FINAL.pdf (accessed: 15.07.2021).

81. Trade policy review. Report by the Secretariat of the WTO WT/TPR/S/333. February 29, 2016 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the WTO. URL: https: //www.wto. org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/s333_e. pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

82.UN General Assembly resolution "Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States" A/RES/56/40 [Electronic resource]// UN Digital Library. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/454037?ln=ru#record-files-collapse-header (accessed: 22.06.2021).

83.UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/477 (V). November 1, 1950 [Electronic resource]//UN Documents. URL: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/477(V) (accessed: 22.06.2021).

84.UN General Assembly resolution A/RES/71/11 "Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States" [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. November 21, 2016. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/a_res_71_11.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

85.UN Secretary-General's Report "Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and other organizations" [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. August 17, 2018. URL:

https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2018_592.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

86.UN Security Council Report "Cooperation between the UN and the League of Arab States". 2020 [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. URL: https: //www. securitycouncilreport.org/monthly-forecast/2021 -01/cooperation-between-the-un-and-the-league-of-arab-states-2.php (accessed: 22.06.2021).

87.UN Security Council resolution №№ 986 S/RES/986. April 14, 1995 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/986(1995) (accessed: 22.06.2021).

88.UNDP Summary Record of the 8th Meeting DP/1983/SR.8. February 23, 1983 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNDP. URL: http://web.undp.org/execbrd/archives/sessions/gc/30thSR-1983/DP-1983-SR8.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

89.UNESCO Arab Regional Education Support Strategy 2016-2021: brochure. Beirut: UNESCO Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States, 2016. 62 p.

90.UNESC0 science report: towards 2030. 2015 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. URL: http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/unesco-science-report-towards-2030-part1.pdf (accessed: 01.02.2022).

91.United Nations, League of Arab States Recognize World's Expectation for New Social Contract, Cooperative Vision, Secretary-General Tells Security Council [Electronic resource]// ReliefWeb. June 14, 2019. URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/united-nations-league-arab-states-recognize-world-s-expectation-new-social-contract (accessed: 22.06.2021).

92.Резолюции Совета Безопасности ООН S/5007 1961 года [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт ООН. Режим доступа:

https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/ru/content/resolutions-adopted-security-council-1961 (дата обращения: 22.06.2021).

На арабском языке:

93.ЪЧ ^j^1 [Отдел образования]. 06.03.2019 [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт Организации по вопросам образования, культуры и науки Лиги арабских государств. URL: http://www.alecso.org/nsite/en/education (дата обращения: 22.06.2021).

94.ЪЧ [Отдел культуры]. 26.04.2019 [Электронный ресурс]// Официальный сайт Организации по вопросам образования, культуры и науки Лиги арабских государств. URL: http://www.alecso.org/nsite/en/culture-bottom (дата обращения: 22.06.2021).

Публицистические:

95.113th Virtual Summit of Women Speakers of Parliament. Inter-Parliamentary Union Remarks by Ms. Pramila Patten, United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict [Electronic resource]// Inter-Parliamentary Union. August 18, 2020. URL: https://www.ipu.org/file/9506/download (accessed: 15.07.2021).

96.4th EU-Arab World Summit: reinforcing the strategic regional partnership [Electronic resource]// The Union for the Mediterranean. October 29, 2019. URL: https://ufmsecretariat.org/4th-eu-arab-world-summit-reinforcing-the-strategic-regional-partnership/ (accessed: 18.07.2021).

97.Arab Declaration on Belonging and Legal Identity. February 28, 2018 [Electronic resource]// Refworld. URL: https://www.refworld.org/docid/5a9ffbd04.html (accessed: 15.07.2021).

98.Ban Ki-moon's Statements [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www. un. org/sg/en/content/ban-ki-moons-statements (accessed: 22.06.2021).

99.Beirut Declaration on Saudi Peace Initiative. March 28, 2002 [Electronic resource]// Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. URL: https://www. mfa. gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/peace/guide/pages/beirut%20decl aration%20on%20saudi%20peace%20initiative%20-%2028-.aspx (accessed: 22.06.2021).

100. Boutros-Ghali B. An agenda for peace: preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peacekeeping: report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992 [Electronic resource]// UN Digital Library. URL: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/145749?ln=ru (accessed: 22.06.2021).

101. Cairo Declaration. Second European Union-League of Arab States Foreign Affairs Ministerial Meeting. Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt. November 13, 2012. Union for the Mediterranean [Electronic resource]// UFM Secretariat. URL: https://ufmsecretariat.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/cairo_ declaration.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021).

102. Declaration of CSOs from the Arab Region on the Post-2015 Framework. March, 2013 [Electronic resource]// ANND. URL: http://annd. org/english/data/folders/117.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

103. Delegates Support Swift Creation of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Middle East as First Committee Concludes General Debate [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. October 19, 2019. URL: https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/gadis3630.doc.htm (accessed: 22.06.2021).

104. Delegation of the European Commission in Egypt. Regional integration Arrangements-Mediterranean region. May 2006 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the European Commission. URL: http://www.delegy.ec.europa.eu/en/EU-

Egypt_Trade_issues/Docs/Regional%20Integration%20Arrangements7.doc (accessed: 22.06.2021).

105. Egypt Minister Rashid to Champion Inter-Arab Trade as a Stepping Stone to Global Integration [Electronic resource]// Financial Times Information. May 18, 2006. URL: https://www.ft.com/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

106. EU - League of Arab States relations: joint communiqué of the EU Political and Security Committee and the League of Arab States Permanent Representatives [Electronic resource]// Conseil de l'UE. janvier 23, 2020. URL : https://www. consilium. europa. eu/fr/press/press-releases/2020/01/23/eu-league-of-arab-states-relations-joint-communique-of-the-eu-political-and-security-committee-and-the-league-of-arab-states-permanent-representatives/ (accessed: 18.07.2021).

107. EU - League of Arab States Summit: Boosting the Euro-Arab partnership and addressing global challenges together. February 25, 2019 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_19_1388 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

108. Indicator SDG 9.5.1 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. URL: https://en.unesco.org/unesco_science_report/sdg-9-5-1 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

109. Intervention du Président Jean-Claude Juncker à la séance d'ouverture du sommet Union européenne-Ligue des États arabes. 24 février 2019 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/fr/SPEECH_19_1408 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

110. Joint Communication by the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European Commission: A new response to a changing Neighbourhood. May 25, 2011 [Electronic resource]// The Diplomatic Service of the European Union. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en (accessed: 18.07.2021).

111. La déclaration conjointe relative à l'Irak. 2014 [Electronic resource]// The Diplomatic Service of the European Union. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en (accessed: 18.07.2021).

112. La déclaration du ministre des Affaires étrangères Jean Asselborn. 2014 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the Luxembourg Government. URL: https://gouvernement.lu/3779945/11-asselborn-athen.html (accessed: 18.07.2021).

113. Memorandum of Understanding between the EU and the League of Arab States to cooperate on counter-terrorism [Electronic resource]// The GREENS/EFA. March 4, 2015. URL: https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/document/memorandum-of-understanding-between-the-eu-and-the-league-of-arab-states-to-cooperate-on-counter-terrorism (accessed: 18.07.2021).

114. Memorandum on the Development of Joint Arab Action presented by 37 Human Rights Organizations. March 20, 2012 [Electronic resource]// Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. URL: http://www.cihrs.org/?p=1889&lang=en (accessed: 18.07.2021).

115. Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource]// UNHCR. URL: https://www.unhcr.org/middle-east-and-north-africa.html (accessed: 15.07.2021).

116. Opening First Committee's General Debate, Delegates Warn of Fragile Security Landscape Laced with Looming Nuclear Threats, Unregulated Weapon Innovations [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. October 10, 2019. URL: https ://www. un. org/press/en/2019/gadis3624.doc. htm (accessed: 22.06.2021).

117. Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on the Arab Region an Opportunity to Build Back Better [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. July 2020. URL: https://unsdg.un.org/sites/default/files/2020-

07/sg_policy_brief_covid-

19_and_arab_states_english_version_july_2020.pdf (accessed: 15.07.2021).

118. Political chief highlights crucial cooperation between UN and the Arab League [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. January 18, 2021. URL: https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/01/1082422 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

119. Regional meeting for civil society in preparation for the Arab Development, Economic and Social Summit [Electronic resource]// ANND. January 8, 2013. URL: http://www.annd.org/arabic/eventId.php?eventId=15 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

120. Regional Perspectives. Arab States [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UNESCO. October 30, 2020. URL: https://en.unesco.org/news/regional-perspectives-arab-states-0 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

121. Remarks at a UN Security Council Briefing on Cooperation between the UN Security Council and the League of Arab States (via VTC) [Electronic resource]// United States Mission to the United Nations. January 18, 2021. URL: https://usun.usmission.gov/remarks-at-a-un-security-council-briefing-on-cooperation-between-the-un-security-council-and-the-league-of-arab-states-via-vtc/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

122. Remarks by High Representative Catherine Ashton following the European Union-League of Arab States Ministerial Meeting // EU Press. A 511/12. November 13, 2012. 57 p.

123. Remarks with League of Arab States Secretary General Nabil Elaraby at Memorandum of Understanding Signing [Electronic resource]// US Department of State. 2012. URL: https://2009-2017. state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2012/09/198191.htm (accessed: 18.07.2021).

124. Remarques du Président Juncker à la conférence de presse avec le Président de l'Egypte Al-Sisi, le Président du Conseil européen Tusk et le Secrétaire général de la Ligue des Etats arabes Aboul Gheit, au sommet UE-

Ligue des Etats arabes 25 février 2019 [Electronic resource]// Official website of the European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/fr/SPEECH_19_1415 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

125. Secretary-General's remarks at press encounter with H.E. Mr. Ahmed Aboul Gheit, Secretary-General of the League of Arab States. June 14, 2019 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the UN. URL: https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/press-encounter/2019-06-14/secretary-general%E2%80%99s-remarks-press-encounter-he-mr-ahmed-aboul-gheit-secretary-general-of-the-league-of-arab-states (accessed: 22.06.2021).

126. Sharm El-Sheikh Summit Decision №2 621. March 29, 2015 [Electronic resource]// The Embassy of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. URL: https ://www. saudiembassy. net/statements/final-communique-%E2%80%8E26th-arab-league-summit (accessed: 18.07.2021).

127. Sharm El-Sheikh summit declaration. February 25, 2019 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the European Council. URL: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2019/02/25/sharm-el-sheikh-summit-declaration/ (accessed: 18.07.2021).

128. Statement by the President of the Security Council [Electronic resource]// UN Security Council. September 26, 2012. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_prst_2012_20.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

129. Summary of remarks by Javier Solana, EU High Representative for CFSP, at the 19th Arab League Summit [Electronic resource]// Official website of the European Council. March 28, 2007. URL: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/disco urs/93397.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021).

130. The Arab League begins drafting the 'Decade for Civil Society' Project [Electronic resource]// Yanair.net. 2014. URL: http://yanair.net/archives/64614 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

131. UN Security Council 6841st meeting. September 26, 2012 [Electronic resource]// Security Council report. URL: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_pv_6841.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

132. Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 [Electronic resource]// Official web-site of the WHO. July 13, 2021. URL: https://www.who.int/puWications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-covid-19— 13-july-2021 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

Статистические:

133. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 [Electronic resource]// Transparency International. July 16, 2017. URL: https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2 016 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

134. Freedom in the World: Democracy in 2020. Washington, DC: Freedom House, 2020. 45 p.

135. Global Spread of Conflict by Country and Population [Electronic resource]// The World Bank. URL: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/spread-conflict-data (accessed: 15.07.2021).

136. MENA development report: better governance for development in the Middle East and North Africa: Enhancing inclusiveness and accountability. Washington: The World Bank, 2003. 185 p.

137. Regional Economic Outlook for Western Hemisphere [Electronic resource]// IMF. April 15, 2021. URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/REO (accessed: 22.06.2021).

138. State of World Population 2021 [Electronic resource]// United Nations Population Fund. 2021. URL: https://www.unfpa.org/sowp-2021 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

139. Survey of Economic and Social Developments in the Arab Region 2020-2021: Summary [Electronic resource]// United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. July 2021. URL: https://www.unescwa.org/pubHcations/survey-economic-social-developments-2020-2021 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

140. The league of Arab States: A regional perspective [Electronic resource]// International Trade Center. October 1, 2012. URL: https://www.intracen.org/article/The-league-of-Arab-States-A-regional-perspective/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

141. World Economic Outlook Database [Electronic resource]// IMF. April 2021. URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/April (accessed: 22.06.2021).

142. Yearbook of the UN. 1950. NY: UN, 1951. 973 p.

143. Рейтинг мирового ВВП на душу населения 2019 года по странам на основе данных МВФ [Электронный ресурс]// Knoema. URL: https://knoema.ru/atlas/ranks/%D0%92%D0%92%D0%9F (accessed: 22.06.2021).

II. ЛИТЕРАТУРА

На русском языке:

144. Аль-Барами С.М.А. Лига арабских государств. Смена приоритетов: от координации к единству (1945-2001 гг.): дис. ... канд. ист. наук: 07.00.15/ Аль-Барами Саид Мухаммад Али. М., 2003. 155 с.

145. Аль-Муаллем М. Лига арабских государств и Организация Объединенных Наций: двусторонние отношения в 2000-2020 гг. //Вопросы истории. 2020. № 10-3. С. 253-257.

146. Арсанова Т.Е. Роль ЮНЕСКО на Ближнем Востоке в современных политических условиях: дис. ... канд. полит. наук: 23.00.04/ Арсанова Татьяна Евгеньевна. М., 2021. 204 с.

147. Ахмадуллин В.В. Участие Лиги арабских государств в вооруженном конфликте на территории Сирийской Арабской Республики [Электронный ресурс]// Армия и общество. 2014. №1 (38). Режим доступа: https://cyberlenmka.ru/artide/n/uchastie-1igi-arabskih-§08иёаг81у-у-уооги7Ьуоппот-коп£11к1е-па-1егг11ог11-81г1у8коу-агаЬ8коу-^риЬНМ (дата обращения: 15.04.2022).

148. Ахмедов В.М. О роли Ирана в Сирии [Электронный ресурс]/ В.М. Ахмедов// Институт Ближнего Востока. 29.01.2018. Режим доступа: http://www.iimes.ru/?p=41035 (дата обращения: 20.03.2022).

149. Африка в условиях формирования полицентричного мира. М.: Институт Африки РАН, 2020. 360 с.

150. Африка: постколониальный дискурс: монография / Т.М. Гавристова, Н.Е. Хохолькова. М.: Институт Африки РАН, 2020. 248 с.

151. Африка: региональные аспекты глобальных проблем / Н. И. Аникина, И. В. Дмитриева, М. М. Голанский и др. / Отв. ред. С. А. Бессонов. М.: Институт Африки РАН, 1994. 321 с.

152. Ближний Восток и современность. Сборник статей № 52. М.: Институт Ближнего Востока, 2018. 352 с.

153. Ближний Восток и современность. Сборник статей № 53. М.: Институт Ближнего Востока, 2019. 376 с.

154. Бокерия С.А. Основы сотрудничества лиги арабских государств с ООН / А. Мохаммед, С. А. Бокерия // Вопросы национальных и федеративных отношений. 2021. Т. 11. № 12 (81). С. 3599-3605.

155. Долгов Б.В. Исламистский терроризм, политика Запада и исламский фактор в Европе (на примере Франции) //Актуальные проблемы Европы. 2021. № 4 (112). С. 173-190.

156. Долгов Б.В. Исламистское движение и арабский кризис в контексте современных тенденций общественного развития // Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2019. № 2. С. 115125.

157. Долгов Б.В., Хорос В.Г., Соловьева З.А. Проблемы Североафриканского региона //Мировая экономика и международные отношения. 2019. Т. 63. № 4. С. 87-95.

158. Зангиев С.В. Анализ арабских интеграционных объединений // Современная наука: инновационный взгляд молодежи. Материалы III Всероссийской научно-практической конференции. 2021. С. 305-310.

159. Иришин Г. События в Северной Африке и на Ближнем Востоке: международные факторы // Мировая экономика и международные отношения. 2012. № 7. С. 107-121.

160. Исаев Л.М. Проблемы признания Лиги арабских государств Организацией Объединенных Наций // Право. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2011. №3. С. 89-105.

161. Кадомцев А.А. Лига арабских государств - 75 лет сотрудничества и противоречий [Электронный ресурс] // Международная жизнь. 21.03.2021. Режим доступа: https://interaffairs.ru/news/show/25727 (дата обращения 25.02.2022)

162. Кирильченко Д.А. Основные направления сотрудничества ООН со специализированными учреждениями //Актуальные проблемы современного международного права. Материалы XVI Международного конгресса «Блищенковские чтения»: в 3 частях. М.: РУДН, 2019. 551 с.

163. Костихин А.А. Законодательные основы сотрудничества арабских государств в области борьбы с терроризмом. Институт Ближнего Востока [Электронный ресурс] // ИМЭМО. Режим доступа: http://www.iimes.ru/?p=5020 (дата обращения: 15.10.2021)

164. Лавриненко А. Сирия и ЛАГ: перспективы возвращения [Электронный ресурс] // РСМД. 04.04.2019. Режим доступа: https://mssiancouncil.ru/analytics-and-comments/columns/middle-east/siriya-i-lag-perspektivy-vozvrashcheniya/ (дата обращения: 5.12.2021)

165. Ланда Р.Г. История арабских стран. М.: Институт востоковедения, 2017. 440 с.

166. Ланда Р.Г. Политический ислам и отношения Восток - Запад // Ислам в современном мире. 2015. Т. 11. № 1. С. 119-134.

167. Ларионова М. В. Вызовы достижения Целей развития тысячелетия (ЦРТ) // Вестник международных организаций: образование, наука, новая экономика. 2020. Т. 15. № 1. С. 155-176.

168. Ларионова М. В. Десятилетия развития ООН (1961-2000 гг.): эволюция систем оценки в контексте теорий развития // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Международные отношения. 2020. Т. 20. № 1. С. 170-183.

169. Левин З. И. Восток: идентичность и глобализация. Москва: Институт востоковедения РАН, 2007. 163 с.

170. Мамонова М.С. Роль ООН в регионе Ближнего Востока //Грани культуры: актуальные проблемы истории и современности. Материалы XIV научной конференции с международным участием. 2020. С. 357362.

171. Махмутова М. И. Политическая активность мавританских «Братьев-мусульман» (2007-2019) // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 13: Востоковедение. 2021. № 3. С. 125-136.

172. Махмутова М. И. Положение Западной Сахары под управлением Марокко // Вестник Дипломатической академии МИД России. Россия и мир. 2020. № 3 (25). С. 170-186.

173. Мелкумян Е. С. Изменение подходов Совета сотрудничества арабских государств залива к проблемам безопасности после «арабской весны» // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 25: Международные отношения и мировая политика. 2021. Т. 13. № 4. С. 105-130.

174. Мелкумян Е. С. Персидский залив: новые тенденции развития региональной ситуации после «арабской весны»//Нестабильность геостратегического пространства в странах Ближнего, Среднего и

Дальнего Востока: актуальные проблемы. Ежегодник 2019. Москва: Институт востоковедения РАН. 2019. С. 133-139.

175. Мелкумян Е.С. Роль Лиги арабских государств в структурировании арабского регионального пространства //Вестник МГИМО-Университета. 2020. № 13 (5). С. 220-235.

176. Мельник Г. Юбилей Лиги арабских государств: необходимо поспевать за глобализацией [Электронный ресурс] // РИА Новости. Режим доступа: https://ria.ru/20200322/1568967651.html (дата обращения: 22.03.2020).

177. Минниахметова К.И. Позиция Лиги арабских государств в отношении ситуации в Ливии и Сирии // Экономика и управление: научно-практический журнал. 2017. № 1 (135). С. 61-64.

178. Мусина М.Т. Особенности создания Лиги арабских государств и формы ее межгосударственного взаимодействия в области правового и военного саморегулирования // Роль международных организаций в современном мире. Сборник статей. Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции молодых ученых. 2019. С. 264-270.

179. Мчедлова М.М. Религия в политических конструкциях современности: представляю номер//Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Политология. 2020. Т. 22. № 4. С. 541-546.

180. Мчедлова М.М. Будущее как предчувствие (к дискуссии о характере политической науки) // Политическая наука. 2018. № 1. С. 93104.

181. Мчедлова М.М., Кудряшова М.С. Религия и политика: от секуляризации к новым теоретическим координатам исследования // Политическая наука. 2016. № S Специальный выпуск. С. 43-58.

182. Оганисян Л.Д. Европейский союз и Лига арабских государств // Европейский Союз: факты и комментарии. 2019. №. 95. С. 109-111.

183. Петухова Е.Н. Роль Организации Объединенных Наций в процессе урегулирования сирийского кризиса 2011-2018 гг. // Евразийское научное объединение. № 4-6 (50). С. 398-403.

184. Примаков Е.М. Мир без сверхдержав // Россия в глобальной политике. 2017. Т.15. № 6. С. 50-57.

185. Прозорова Г.К. Россия и региональные организации Ближнего Востока и мусульманского мира //Россия и мусульманский мир. 2010. №2 5. С. 66-70.

186. Рыжов И. В. Американская стратегия «достаточного присутствия» на Ближнем Востоке / И. В. Рыжов, М. Ю. Бородина, Т. В. Баранова // Вестник МГИМО Университета. 2020. Т. 13. № 5. С. 236-251.

187. Рыжов И. В. Основные проблемы региональной безопасности на Ближнем Востоке / И. В. Рыжов, М. Ю. Бородина, Е. М. Савичева // Вестник Марийского государственного университета. Серия: Исторические науки. Юридические науки. 2021. Т. 7. № 1 (25). С. 48-56.

188. Рыжов И. В. Российско-ливанские отношения: поиск путей взаимодействия / Е. М. Савичева, Д. Катеренчук, И. В. Рыжов // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Всеобщая история. 2021. Т. 13. № 4. С. 384-397.

189. Салах Э.И., Каддур Н., Халифа М.У. Сотрудничество между ООН и ЛАГ / Объединенная инспекционная группа. Ли/КЕР/86/3. Женева: ООН, 1986. 40 с.

190. Сапронова М.А. Проблемы и пределы регионализации в арабском мире и экономические интересы России на Ближнем Востоке // Вестник экономики, права и социологии. 2019. Т.2. № 3. С. 157-163.

191. Сапронова М.А. Исламские партии и государство // Азия и Африка сегодня. 2018. № 11 (736). С. 30-33.

192. Сапронова М.А. Политический процесс в арабских странах. М., 2017. 312 с.

193. Сапронова М.А. Новая роль ЛАГ в региональных и международных отношениях [Электронный ресурс] МГИМО. Режим доступа: https://mgimo.ru/about/news/experts/236328/ (дата обращения 17.03.2013).

194. Тоубаси С. Система принятия решений Лиги арабских государств и ее влияние на арабскую интеграцию // Вопросы политологии. 2019. Т. 9. № 2 (42). С. 345-355.

195. Тоубаси С. Лига арабских государств как инструмент региональной политической консолидации: особенности и перспективы на современном этапе // Вопросы политологии. 2019. Т. 9. № 8 (48). С. 1829-1834.

196. Юсупалиева Д.К. Роль международных организаций в стабилизации взаимоотношений государств // Молодой ученый. 2020. №2 23 (313). С. 520-522.

На английском языке:

197. Abdelbaky M. Governance and growth in MENA Region: Evidence from panel data analysis // International Journal of Finance and Economics. 2012. № 98. P. 1-18.

198. Abdul-Rahman E. Al-Salhei. Amending the Pact of the League of Arab States // Sh'oun Arabiyah (Arab Affairs). March, 1988. 390 p.

199. Al-Asbahi Q.Y.A.M. Water Resources Information in Yemen / in International Work Session on Water Statistics. Vienna: Intersecretariat Working Group on Environment Statistics [Electronic resource] // The United Nations Statistics Division. 2005. URL: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/envpdf/pap_wasess3a3yemen.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

200. Al-Baharnah H. The Arab League Pact Between Regionalism and Nationalism and the Suggested Amendments (in Arabic) / in The League of Arab States: Reality and Aspiration, 2006. 214 p.

201. Amour P.O. The Regional Order in the Gulf Region and the Middle East Regional Rivalries and Security Alliances. N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 373 p.

202. Anderson K. Going Major: Reforming the League of Arab States // Harvard International Review: Cambridge. 2004. Vol. 25. Issue 4. P. 5-14.

203. Anwar Y. Our Arab League: Can What the Arab Have Spoiled be Repaired? // Al Arabi. March 1995. Issue 136. Kuwait, Ministry of Information. P. Canton, H. League of Arab States / in The Europa Directory of International Organizations 23 Edition. NY: Routledge. 2021. P. 705-715.

204. Atwan A.B. The Islamic State, The Digital Caliphate. London: Saqi. Books, 2019. 96 p.

205. Babaud S., Mirimanova N. The European Commission Early-warning Architecture and Crisis-response Capacity // Initiative for Peacebuilding-Early Warning. 2011. P. 5-21.

206. Barnett M.N. Sovereignty, Nationalism and Regional Order // International Organization. Summer. 1995. Vol. 49, No. 3. P. 479-510.

207. Bianco C. Infected: The impact of the coronavirus on the Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource] // European Council on Foreign Relations. March 31, 2020. URL: https://www.ecfr.eu/commentary-infected-the-impact-of-thecorona-virus-on-the-middle-east-and-no (date of access: 15.07.2021).

208. Bjerde A. Accélérer les échanges d'électricité entre les pays arabes [Electronic resource] // World Bank. Novembre 20, 2019. URL: https://blogs.worldbank.org/fr/arabvoices/how-ramp-electricity-trade-between-countries-arab-world (accessed: 22.06.2021).

209. Blanford N. The Arab League and Political Reform: A Vague Commitment // Carnegie Endowmen for International Peace. August 22, 2008. URL: https://carnegieendowment.org/sada/21271 (accessed: 18.07.2021).

210. Bokeriya S. African Union in addressing regional peace and conflict in Darfur / B. Svetlana // Asia and Africa Today. 2021. № 1. P. 37-42.

211. Bokeriya S. A. Women's Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Overcoming Barriers // Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development. 2021. P. 207-216.

212. Boserup R. A. The importance of the domestic scene in Arab politics. / in R. A. Boserup, K. Hazbun, K. Makdisi, & H. Malmvig (Eds.), New conflict dynamics: Between regional autonomy and intervention in the Middle East and North Africa. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies and the American University of Beirut. 2017. P. 209-231.

213. Bouhlila D.S. Sexual harassment and domestic violence in the Middle East and North Africa // Arab Barometer. 2019. P. 2-18.

214. Bremer C. Legal and social barriers holding back women's empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa [Electronic resource]// OECD. January 23, 2020. URL: https://www.oecd.org/newsroom/legaland-social-barriers-holding-back-women-s-empowerment-in-middle-east-and-north-africa.htm (date of access: 15.07.2021).

215. Burke E., Echague A. and Youngs R. Why the European Union Needs a Broader Middle East Policy. Documenti IAI 09|37 [Electronic resource] // Istituto Affari Internazionali. 2009. URL: http://www.iai.it/pdf/DocIAI/IAI0937.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021).

216. Civil Society Dialogue Network Meeting European Union - League of Arab States cooperation and the EU response to changes in the Arab region: Views from civil society [Electronic resource] // The European Peacebuilding Liaison Office. 1-2 June, 2016. URL: http://eplo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/EPL0_CSDN_meeting_EU-LAS_Report.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021).

217. Coats D. R. Worldwide threat assessments of the U.S. Intelligence Community. In Presented to the Select Committee Senate Select Committee

on intelligence. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Washington: D.C. USA. 2019. 49 p.

218. Crawford K.F., Hoover Green A., & Parkinson S.E. Wartime sexual violence is not just a weapon of war [Electronic resource] // Washington Post. January 23, 2014. URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/09/24/wartime-sexual-violence-is-not-just-a-weapon-of-war/ (accessed: 15.07.2021).

219. Dakhlallah F. The League of Arab States and Regional Security: Towards an Arab Security Community? British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 2012. Vol. 39. № 3. P. 393-412.

220. Dietl G. Introduction. In G. Dietl (Ed.). Democracy and democratization in the Gulf. Shipra: New Delhi, 2010. 295 p.

221. Diplomatica [Electronic resource] // Foundation for International Relations and Foreign Dialogue. Vol. LX. № 1. 2007. URL: http: //www. fride. org/download/ART_StrNeg_ENG_sep07.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021).

222. Dorsey J.M. Refugees and shantytowns in MENA and beyond imperil global public health [Electronic resource] // Middle East Institute. 2020. URL: https://www.mei.org.in/commentary-598 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

223. Drumheller T. On The Brink. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers. 2006. 254 p.

224. Du Plessis Q. An unprecedented crisis: The economic ramifications of Covid-19 [Electronic resource] // The Mail & Guardian. April 4, 2020. URL: https://www.mg.co.za/article/2020-04-04-an-unprecedented-crisis-theeconomic-ramifications-of-covid-19 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

225. Fasano U., Zubair I. GCC Countries: From Oil Dependence to Diversification [Electronic resource] // International Monetary Fund. 2016. URL: https://www. imf. org/en/Publications/Miscellaneous-Publication-0ther/Issues/2016/12/30/GCC-Countries-From-0il-Dependence-to-Diversification-16589 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

226. Fathalla el-Khatib M. The States of the League of Arab States in the International Community. N.Y., 1958. 226 p.

227. Fukuyama F. State-building: governance and world order in the 21st century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004. 253 p.

228. Gambill G.C. Roman on the Arab Gulf States' reaction to the coronavirus pandemic [Electronic resource] // Meforum. March 28, 2020. URL: https://www.meforum/org/60613/roman-on-arab-gulf-statesreaction-to-coronavirus (accessed: 15.07.2021).

229. Gaunb F. Civil-military relations in MENA: Between fragility and resilience. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies. 2016. 220 p.

230. Ghalim R. The International Officer Within the Framework of the League of Arab States (6th Edition). Algeria: Dar Houma Publishers, 2014. 241 p.

231. Glass N. The Water Crisis in Yemen: Causes, Consequences and Solutions // Global Majority E-Journal. Vol. 1. № 1. 2010. P. 18-29.

232. Habib L.A. Political empowerment for women in the Middle East [Electronic resource] // Global Fund for Women 2018. URL: https://www. globalfundforwomen. org/political-empowerment-for-women-inthe-middle-east/ (accessed: 15.07.2021).

233. Halliday F. The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics, and Ideology. London: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 353 p.

234. Hameed S. Subsidies in Iran: Impediments to democratic experience. In G. Dietl (Ed.), Democracy and democratization in the Gulf. Shipra: New Delhi, 2010.195 p.

235. Hatinger B. The League of Arab States. Stuttgart: GRIN. 2006. P 56.

236. Hijazi Ihsan A. Charles H. Malik of Lebanon, 81; Was President of U.N. Assembly [Electronic resource] // The New York Times. Dec. 29, 1987. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/1987/12/29/obituaries/charles-h-malik-of-lebanon-81-was-president-of-un-assembly.html (accessed: 22.06.2021).

237. Hovet T. Bloc Politics in the UN. Cambridge, 1960. 262 p.

238. Huntington S. Democracy's third wave. Journal of Democracy. Spring. 1991. P. 12-34.

239. Huntjens P., et al. The Political Economy of Water Management in Yemen: Conflict Analysis and Recommendation / The Hague Institute for Global Justice [Electronic resource] // The Hague Institute for Global Justice. 2014. URL: http://www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Water-Management-in-Yemen.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

240. Isaac S.K. Awakening Interregionalism? The EU and Regional Arab Organizations Post-2011 // GREEN Working Paper. No. 49. 23 p.

241. Jordan GAFTA Absorbs 42.6% of Exports [Electronic resource] // The Financial Times. August 10, 2006. URL: https://www.ft.com/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

242. Jordan GAFTA Controls 36.1% of Imports [Electronic resource] // The Financial Times. August 10, 2006. URL: https://www.ft.com/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

243. Jung D. Modern states of family enterprises? Some theoretical reflections on democratization and state formation in the Gulf Region / in G. Dietl (Ed.), Democracy and democratization in the Gulf. Shipra: New Delhi. 2010. 368 p.

244. Kamrava M. The Modern Middle East: A Political History since the First World War. Los Angeles. University of California Press, 2005. 232 p.

245. Kazemi F. Gender, Islam, and politics. Social Research, 2000. №2 67(2). 453 p.

246. Kettis A. EU-League of Arab States Relations: Prospects for Closer Parliamentary Cooperation. European Parliament. DG for External Policies. Policy Department. Policy Briefing. PE 491. 2013. P. 9-27.

247. Khatoon S. US initiative of political liberalization and democracy in UAE: A myth / in G. Dietl (Ed.). Democracy and democratization in the Gulf. Shipra: New Delhi, 2010. 279 p.

248. Kuimova A. Russia's arms exports to the MENA Region: Trends and drivers (Euro Mesco Policy Brief. No. 95). London: Routledge, 2019. 284 p.

249. Kumar R. Political reforms in Bahrain: Initiative from above. In G. Dietl (Ed.). Democracy and democratization in the Gulf. Shipra: New Delhi, 2010. 49 p.

250. Le Beau, J.J., Troitskiy M. Contemporary Security Challenges in the Middle East / in Contemporary Security Challenges in the Middle East by Le Beau, J. J. Ankara. Penguin Books, 2008. 315 p.

251. League of Arab States // The Middle East and North Africa 2005. 51st Edition. London and New York: Europa Publications. 2005. P. 1358-1363.

252. Lon D.E., Bernard R., and Gasiorowski M.J. eds. The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. 6th ed. Boulder. CO: Westview Press, 2011. 308 p.

253. Lynch M. Making the Arab League Matter [Electronic resource] // Foreign Policy. 8 April, 2012. URL: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/04/08/making_the_arab_League_ matter (accessed: 18.07.2021).

254. Macdonald R.W. The League of Arab States. Princeton. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965. 250 p.

255. Maddy-Weitzman B. The Arab League Comes Alive // Middle East Quarterly Summer, 2012. 278 p.

256. Magen A. The crisis of governance in the Middle East: Implications for democracy, development and security. Israel: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, 2013. 125 p.

257. Maher J. ed. League of Arab States. The Europa world year book / Europa Publications 1 (45 ed.). 2004. P. 121-143.

258. Marcus J. Why Saudi Arabia and Iran are bitter rivals [Electronic resource] // BBC. September 16, 2019. URL: https://bbc.com/middleeast/why-saudi-arabia-and-iran-are-bitter-rivals (accessed: 22.06.2021).

259. Moore S. Parchedness, Politics and Power: The State Hydraulic in Yemen // Political Ecology. 2011. Vol. 18. № 1. P. 38-50.

260. Omar S., Mezher T., and Arafat H.A. Water Security in the GCC Countries: Challenges and Opportunities //Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 4. № 4. 2014. 336 p.

261. Oppenheimer S. These Kurdish women helped fight off ISIS [Electronic resource] // Haaretz. 2019. URL: https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/syria7.premium.MAGAZINE-these-kurdishwomen-helped-fight-off-isis-now-they-re-the-no-1-target-in-syria-1.8130721 (accessed: 15.07.2021).

262. Pattison P., & Sedhai R. Covid-19 lockdown transforms Qatar's largest migrant camp into virtual prison [Electronic resource] // The Guardian. April 7, 2020. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/mar/20/covid-19-lockdown-turns-qatars-largest-migrant-camp-into-virtual-prison (accessed: 15.07.2021).

263. Pattnaik J. K. Democratization in Saudi Arabia. In G. Dietl (Ed.). Democracy and democratization in the Gulf. Shipra: New Delhi, 2010. 238 p.

264. Pawlak P., Ricci A. Crisis Rooms: Towards a Global Network? // European Union Institute for Security Studies. 2014. 42 p.

265. Pinfari M. Interregionalism and Multiparty Mediation // International Journal of Peace Studies. Summer 2013. Vol. 18. № 1. P. 83-101.

266. Pogany P. The Arab League and Peacekeeping in the Lebanon, Gower Publishing Co. Ltd., Aldershot. 2015. P. 83-104.

267. Rape to silence: Sexual violence by police rampant in Sisi's Egypt [Electronic resource] // Middle East Eye. 2015. URL: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/rape-silence-sexualviolence-police-rampant-sisis-egypt (accessed: 15.07.2021).

268. Reperger S. Feminist politics holds the key to a post-patriarchal social order [Electronic resource] // Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. January 30, 2020.

URL: https://www.fes-connect.org/trending/feminist-politics-holds-the-keyto-a-post-patriarchal-social-order/ (accessed: 15.07.2021).

269. Revolutionary Changes, Power Dynamics, and Regional Rivalries since the Arab Spring: An Introduction / in The Middle East Reloaded: Revolutionary Changes, Power Dynamics, and Regional Rivalries since the Arab Spring. Edited by Philipp O. Amour. St. James's Studies in World Affairs. Washington: Academica Press, 2018. P. 1-21.

270. Ricks T.E. Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. New York and London: Penguin Books, 2006. 229 p.

271. Rishmawi M. The League of Arab States Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms // Open Society Foundation. 2015. P. 11-18.

272. Rishmawi M. The League of Arab States in the Wake of the Arab Spring [Electronic resource] // CIHRS. 2013. URL: http://www.cihrs.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Arab-Leage.pdf (accessed: 18.07.2021).

273. Rishmawi M., Comandulli M. League of Arab States (LAS) / Encyclopedias of International Law [Electronic resource] // Oxford Public International Law. 2010. URL: https: //opil. ouplaw. com/view/10.1093/law: epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e652 (accessed: 22.06.2021).

274. Robbins M., Thomas K. Women in the Middle East and North Africa: A divide between rights and roles [Electronic resource] // Arabbarometer. January 23, 2020. URL: https://www.arabbarometer.org/wp-content/uploads/AB_WomenFinal-version05122018.pdf (accessed: 15.07.2021).

275. Robinson G.E. Whither Palestine? Weak state, failed state or no state at all / in M. Kamrava, C. Schmitz, S. Phillips, D. E. Esser, F. Wehrey, S. Mikaelian, B. F. Salloukh, R. Abusharaf, A. De Waal, Z. Babar, & D. Osman (Eds.). Fragile politics: Weak states in the Greater Middle East Summary Report. Doha: Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. 2011. 241 p.

276. Rosa V. Employing Militarization as a Means of Maintaining the 'Ruling Bargain': The Case of the United Arab Emirates / in The Middle East Reloaded: Revolutionary Changes, Power Dynamics, and Regional Rivalries since the Arab Spring, edited by Philipp O. Amour. St. James's Studies in World Affairs. Washington, DC: Academica Press. 2018. P. 225-283.

277. Ross M. Oil, Islam and women //American Political Science Review. 2008. № 102(1). P. 107-123.

278. Shaban S. The Draft Revision of the Pact of the League of Arab States: A Special Analysis (in Arabic) // Sh'oun Arabiyah (Arab Affairs) // 13 March 1982. P. 9-14.

279. Sheira O., Ammash M. Arab League Summit Report. GPoT PU № 10 [Electronic resource] // Global Political Trends Center Istanbul Kültür University. 2015. URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/189985/Arab-League-Summit-Report_GPoT_PU10.pdf (accessed: 22.06.2021).

280. Sudan urged to ensure justice for raped women protesters [Electronic resource] // Middle East Monitor. January 23, 2019. URL: https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20190719-sudan-urged-to-ensurejustice-for-raped-women-protesters (accessed: 15.07.2021).

281. Sussman A.L. After Mideast Uprisings, Will the Arab League Finally Lead? [Electronic resource] // The Atlantic. March 16, 2011. URL: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/03/after-mideast-uprisings-will-the-arab-league-finally-lead/72541/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

282. Tagliapietra S. The political economy of MENA oil exporters in times of global decarbonization. Working Paper 5. Bruegel, 2017. 28 p.

283. Toffolo C. The Arab League. Michigan: Infobase Publishing, 2008. 325 p.

284. Troitskiy M. The Emerging Great Power Politics and Regionalism: How to Structure Effective Regional Conflict Management // Global Policy. June 2019. Volume 10. Issue S2. P. 14-21.

285. Tsupokyemla. Qatar-Hamas relations: Between strategic calculation and ideological ties / in P. R. Kumaraswamy & M. Quamar (Eds.), Contemporary Persian Gulf: Essays in honor of Gulshan Dietl, Prakash Chandra Jain and Girijesh Pant. New Delhi: KW Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2016. 238 p.

286. UNHCR flight evacuates 132 refugees from Libya detention [Electronic resource] // UNHCR. November 23, 2018. URL: https://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2018/11/5bf6d1b64/unhcr-flight-evacuates- 132-refugees-libya-detention.html (accessed: 15.07.2021).

287. Vericat J. Arab Spring Revives Role of the Arab League [Electronic resource] // The Global Observatory. November 21, 2011. URL: http://www.theglobalobservatory.org/analysis/164-arab-spring-revives-role-of-the-arab-League.html (accessed: 18.07.2021).

288. Walcott J., Landay J.S. U.S. Maps New Course for Troubled Iraq— Again [Electronic resource] // Seattle Times. May 24, 2007. URL: https://www.seattletimes.com/ (accessed: 22.06.2021).

289. Ward C. Water Crisis in Yemen: Managing Extreme Water Scarcity in the Middle East. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2014. 207 p.

290. Weber S., Jentleson B.W. The End of Arrogance: America in the Global Competition of Ideas. Harvard University Press, 2010. 229 p.

291. Weiss M.I. A Perfect Storm: The Causes and Consequences of Severe Water Scarcity, Institutional Breakdown and Conflict in Yemen // Water International. 2015.Vol. 40. № 2. P. 251-272.

292. Woodward B. State of Denial. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. 304 p.

293. Wright R. How the curse of Sykes-Picot Still Haunts the Middle East [Electronic resource] // Newyorker. January 3, 2020. URL: https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/how-the-curse-of-sykes-picot-stillhaunts-the-middle-east (accessed: 15.07.2021).

294. Wu L., & Lanz M. How the CIA overthrew Iran's democracy in 4 days [Electronic resource] // NPR. January 16, 2020. URL: https://www.npr.org/2019/01/31/690363402/how-the-cia-overthrew-iransdemocracy-in-four-days (accessed: 15.07.2021).

295. Zahirnejad M. Shiism, Rentier State and illiberal democracy in Iran. In P. R. Kumaraswamy & M. Quamar (Eds.), Contemporary Persian Gulf: Essays in honor of Gulshan Dietl, Prakash Chandra Jain and Girijesh Pant. New Delhi: KW Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2016. 247 p.

296. Zulfqar S. Competing interests of major powers in the Middle East: The case study of Syria and its implications for regional stability // Perceptions. 2018. №. 23(1). P. 101-129.

На французском языке:

297. Finger H., Gressani D. Vers de nouveaux horizons. La transformation économique sur fond de transition politique dans le monde arabe / Département Moyen-Orient et Asie centrale. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2014. 122 p.

298. Moussa K. Réforme de la Ligue arabe: la proposition algérienne reste sans écho! [Electronic resource] // Echorouk.17.04.2018. URL: https://www.echoroukonline.com/reforme-de-la-ligue-arabe-la-proposition-algerienne-reste-sans-echo (accessed: 18.07.2021).

299. Nidhal M. Les États Arabes et la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l'Homme // Arab Law Quarterly. 2009. Vol. 23. № 3. P. 310-319.

300. Salah E. Ibrahim, Nasser Kaddour, Moustapha Ould Khalifa. La coopération entre les Nations Unies et la Ligue des Etats arabes. Geneva, 1986. P.10-31.

На арабском языке:

301. fjicj J jjiâJl ^ ^ ". alj^i] Jj^Jl ^CO AjJjxJl Jj^Jl ЯллЛл. jjJ

^Jl^Jl ai^j jU—ц ^Ui^V lj ^UjUjV l [Роль Лиги арабских государств

в поддержке политических прав женщин] / Санан Салах Рашид Ас-Салхи // Журнал искусств, литературы, гуманитарных и социальных наук. 2020. №. 56. С. 310-326.

302. ^Ui^Vlj ^biUiVI fjlcj ч-^Vlj ùj^l Akx sÎjJJ [Роль Лиги арабских государств в поддержке политических прав женщин ] / Аль-Салхи С.С.Р. // Журнал искусств, литературы, гуманитарных и социальных наук. 2020. №. 56. С. 310-326.

303. 2005-1989 jjijb ЯК^ы AJJ^J ^i AJj^ AjIjjàVl.j AJJJ*JI JJ^J^ ^l^Jl ¿¿^ ùl^-j^ [Арабские, африканские и международные усилия и усилия по урегулированию проблемы Дарфура 1989-2005 годов] / Сирхан Гулам Хусейн // The International and Political Journal. 2010. № 15. С. 21-45.

304. A^ij; O^AAJI ^ИJ Ajjj*Jl Jj^Jl AjJj^Jl CilcljjJl ^aâ AjJÎ. j^c Ajjl^Vl ^ji*Jlj ^itaVl Ai^x. AjjtLs [Международный механизм урегулирования конфликтов Лига арабских государств и Организация Объединенных Наций: Сравнительное исследование] / Хадрами Омар // Журнал искусств и гуманитарных наук . 2004. Т. 53. №. 1. С. 11-115.

305. j ^¿^Vl ^Vl flkûil AikJl AjJJ^Jl ùljoil^Jl ^i

•^•1.; дис. [Арабская региональная система безопасности в условиях международных и региональных переменных]/ Бен Иса Ахмед // Университет Галфы , 2010. 252 с.

306. o.ilc.1 ; ^lj^aJl .IxjLI Jj^Jl ^i ^jl^Jl jx jljgluVl -c^j SOAJLJI -xVl. -jl'", ^j^s.l jlj^Vl ^i jjiiUl [ООН и поддержка стабильности из-за рубежа в постконфликтных странах: переосмысление ролей]/ А. Касом Салим // Guelma: Université 8 mai 1945, 2015. 390 с.

307. ¿Ш o^Jl -xVl. jj^ ^Jl^ jl^Jj AjcLu^Vlj Ajjl^jVl ^jixiJ AjJj^il Ai^Jl

l^^^l Sjjj^j l^xl^x [Организация Объединенных Наций между выполнением своих функций и необходимостью их пересмотра] / Дилдар Салех Хама Хусейн // Международный журнал гуманитарных и социальных наук. 2020. №. 12. С. 105-118.

^ Ял^Л и^и Я^и. ^^ [Геостратегические изменения на Ближнем Востоке и их влияние на национальную безопасность арабских стран] / Аль Сахли и др. // Арабский университет наук о безопасности имени Наифа, 2020. 321 с.

309. ¿иЛ ^л*!^ . ^Л сЯаШ! ^¿¡Л Яа^Л ЯЛ^. о

^ ■ Як*. 1980-2014 5^ Ци^ Яи с1ЛЛ ^иы

ЯЛ^ [Изучение взаимосвязи между потреблением энергии, экономическим ростом и изменением климата с использованием данных о состоянии Северной Африки и Ближнего Востока за период (2014-1980 гг.)] / О Бен Али // Журнал экономики и окружающей среды. 2021.Т. 4. №. 1. С. 11-30.

Обратите внимание, представленные выше научные тексты размещены для ознакомления и получены посредством распознавания оригинальных текстов диссертаций (OCR). В связи с чем, в них могут содержаться ошибки, связанные с несовершенством алгоритмов распознавания. В PDF файлах диссертаций и авторефератов, которые мы доставляем, подобных ошибок нет.