The Role of Institutions in Local Content Policy Implementation: The Case of Ghana тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 08.00.14, кандидат наук Ахали Аарон Яв Офое
Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Ахали Аарон Яв Офое
LIST OF CONTENTS
Declaration of originality
List of figures
List of tables
1 Natural Resource Discovery And Development: Background And Context
1.1 Research Aim, Main Research Question and Associated Objectives
1.2 The Research Gap
1.3 The Conceptual Framework
1.4 The Analytical Framework
1.5 Chapter Summary and Conclusion
2 Oil Discovery, Local Content & Local Participation
2.1 Oil Discovery in Ghana
2.2 chapter summary and conclusion
3 Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Data Collection Techniques
3.3 Chapter Summary and Conclusion
4 Analysis and Discussion of Research Findings
4.1 Impact of Ghana's Local Content Policy
4.2 Chapter Summary and Conclusion
5 Contribution to Knowledge, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations
5.2 Limitations and Future Research
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Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «The Role of Institutions in Local Content Policy Implementation: The Case of Ghana»
The discovery of natural resources such as oil and gas in commercial quantities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has brought about mixed results. Although most middle- and low-income countries in resource-rich economies in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be blessed with oil and gas, on the one hand, these resource-rich economies (RREs) also suffer exceedingly due to natural resource abundance. Undoubtedly vast deposits of oil and gas have proven to be a vehicle through which resource-rich economies can escape the poverty trap that engulfs them, but countries such as Angola, Chad, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Liberia, Kenya, and Tanzania, despite the presence of vast oil and gas resources, have not been able to achieve the much-desired economic transformation, resulting in a circumstance where natural resources have become a curse rather than a blessing. Disappointingly, most resource-rich economies are still confronted with institutional challenges which hinder the effectiveness of local content implementation objectives. Rather, natural resource abundance has created a local capitalist elite class, to the detriment of the wider citizenry, resulting in the creation of an enclave in the oil and gas industry. Nonetheless, resource-rich economies in their quest for economic transformation using their oil and gas discoveries have adopted and implemented local content policies (LCPs) to fracture the enclave of the oil and gas industry and pave the way for economic transformation. It is important to mention that these policies have not produced outcomes similar to other LCP implementing countries such as Norway. This is the result of an array of issues such as poor institutional quality, political upheaval, persistently poor infrastructure, corruption, a deficit in technology, lack of capital, and the misalignment of policies in the broader economic and legal framework, all which are the crux of this thesis. These factors and others have impeded the economic aspirations of RREs. Nonetheless, RREs in Africa gifted with oil and gas resources have
seen the presence of a large number of multinational oil and gas companies. These firms have relocated with intact linkages supporting their oil and gas activities, leaving no room for domestic market integration, creating an enclave in the oil and gas industry. The enclave nature of the oil and gas industry has led to an amplification of LCPs in most RREs in SSA which are oil and gas producers.
Oil and gas discoveries in Ghana present an exceptional opportunity to boost economic growth and cascade the kind of prosperity the country desires. Oil and gas discoveries have high potential for a considerable positive effect on the Ghanaian economy and people via the creation of jobs, mainly through the stimulation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Among the RREs in SSA there are examples of both successes and failures in the use of resource-generated wealth. The spillover effects of Ghana's discovery of oil on its economy and society are dependent on the kind of policies applied moving forward, including those associated with the use of institutional elements governing oil and gas management. Ghana has shown mixed macroeconomic performance in recent years, with considerable shocks being amplified by policy slippages resulting in external and domestic disparities. For instance, growth in 2016 was 3.5%, the lowest in two decades, but there was a recovery of growth in 2017-18, as a result of the discovery and production of oil, a decline in inflation, and lower imbalances as correct policies were implemented. The strength of this thesis lies in the fact that it deviates from other studies, as its overarching aim is to comprehensively investigate the role institutional quality and governance play in LCP implementation, using Ghana as a case study. Introducing institutional quality and juxtaposing it with local content is important. In 2017, the United Nations Development Programme indicated, among an array of other recommendations, that resource-rich economies, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries, must reinforce and institutionalise better
governance as a major way of planting and nurturing the seeds of prosperity in Africa. This is a major consideration which gave the researcher the impetus to investigate this assertion in a comprehensive context.
This PhD is dedicated to Audeen, Mikayla, Makayla, Damaris, Professor Yelena Kalyuzhnova, my parents, grandparents (may their souls rest in peace) and ancestors who never had access to formal education.
My foremost thanks go to God Almighty whom I serve for his grace, sustenance and favour that
have kept me through this period. It always appears impossible until it is done. It has been a long and onerous three years. In the process, I have learnt, inter alia, to think critically and to multitask. Writing this PhD was indeed a very challenging, painful, lonely, and mentally and physically exhausting experience. I am grateful for every moment and every second I have had to spend in this 'marriage' of three years with this PhD. There were times when I thought it would never end, that it was impossible, and I could see no light at the end of the tunnel. I was encouraged and motivated by people, to whom I am ceaselessly grateful.
More importantly, I am eternally grateful to Professor Andrew Godley, Pro Dean, and academic director for the Centre for Entrepreneurship at Henley Business School, for granting me the scholarship that enabled me to pursue my childhood aspiration of gaining a higher academic qualification such as this. I am deeply indebted to my entire supervisory team led by Professor Yelena Kalyuzhnova, Dr Maksim Belitski, Dr Oleg B. Pichkov whose guidance, encouragement and critique have helped to produce this thesis. I am thankful for your patience during this journey. I must thank all the interviewees who contributed to this study. Thank you for sharing your ideas, knowledge, and experience on local content within the oil and gas industry. There is no wealth like knowledge.
To my PhD colleagues Olena, Rebecca, Ola, Natalya, Tina, Wendy, and you Faisal Fatehale. You arrived in my life and made such a beautiful impact on it. Those long days and nights with coffee, chocolate, food, crying and laughing around the table, and with you, Khaled, sitting by my side working on your thesis and trying so hard to work on your supervisors' comments, will stay in my memory forever. Thank you all for your endless support, patience, listening, calls and texts. I could not have done this without you.
And of course, this journey would not have been possible without my family. For your unconditional love, I am forever thankful and grateful to my father, Mr John Willie Ahali and my mother Mrs Mavis Ahali, for your continuous prayers, motivation, advice, lessons, kindness, protection, and sacrifices. You never took the easy way, and you have always done what was best for me as your child. To my siblings CPL Kelvin Mawuli Ahali, Gloria Emefa Frimpong and Naomi Ahali who would always enquire about how I was getting on. No matter how badly I fail, I always know my family will treat me as a winner. If this is a success, I dedicate this to my family. Without you, I am nothing. Special thanks also to Pastor Samuel Abeka of the Apostolic Church Ghana, Holland Missions who, from day one, put his unflinching confidence in me. Thanks for your love and support.
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Заключение диссертации по теме «Мировая экономика», Ахали Аарон Яв Офое
A Summary of the Main Findings and Implications
The views of various stakeholders about the LCP are revealed in Chapter 4. These views include the insight that the LCP is an instrument for improving the involvement of Ghanaian citizens. Also, the LCP is perceived as a tool to encourage the exploitation of local resources within industry activities. The LCP is a policy tool that expedites the transfer of knowledge and technology from MNOCs to local companies. Strict and sustainable implementation of LCP can strengthen sectoral links with other sectors of the economy. Thus, LCP is a deliberate strategy established by the Ghanaian government to give the people of Ghana the uttermost opportunity to participate and take full ownership of their oil and gas industry. Nonetheless, the findings of this research also showed some challenges that create bottlenecks which hamper the implementation of Ghana's LCP (see Chapter 4).
The study shows the relationships between MNOCs and local firms in the Ghanaian oil and gas industry. For local firms to participate fully in the oil and gas activities, MNOCs must continue to collaborate with them so they can become well equipped to meet international standards. On another hand, the scenario where local firms front in order to secure contracts from the government must be constantly checked. It is against this background that the Petroleum Commission, Ghana National Petroleum Corporation, and other parastatal agencies must continue to monitor the entire implementation process.
The research discloses the MNOCs' views of local firms operating within Ghana's oil and gas industry, including the opinion that local firms lack the knowledge and competencies to work in such a high-tech industry. There are major challenges in relation to the lack of capital, and infrastructure which need to be addressed if Ghana's LCP implementation is going to be robust. For local firms to benefit from LCP implementation, there is a need for continuous collaboration with MNOCs, which is the only means by which local firms can acquire the training that could allow them to fully participate in the industry. The research highlights the need for local firms to meet high global standards as this is a sure way to make them competitive.
The study reveals that more resources are needed from stakeholders to ensure that Ghana's LCP is robustly implemented. The insufficient infrastructure, lack of financial capital, and further strengthening of the main institutions that drive LCP implementation need to be continuously monitored, evaluated, and assessed. This study shows that the presence of good infrastructure is a significant determinant of whether successful local firms can participate in the oil and gas industry. MNOCs have more financial power and access to the technology than local firms struggling to acquire the necessary funds and resources.
The research agrees with other scholars, that robust, sustainable, and reliable institutions are platforms on which the private sector and individuals can achieve personal security, improve their material welfare, and reach their potential. This research advocates the need for policy and decision-makers within Ghana's oil and gas industry to ensure that institutional quality is at the forefront of LCP implementation. Thus, institutions must be sustainable and reliable as this offers an opportunity to improve business practices and create an enabling environment for foreign investors while ensuring that Ghanaians are able to be engaged in meaningful oil and gas enterprises, devoid of incompetence. This means that the overarching governing institutions, such as the PC, GNPC, and other parastatal agencies, perform their roles and responsibilities at the optimal level. In other words, the various legislative and regulatory frameworks that govern Ghana's oil and gas industry need to be strengthened. The integrity of institutions is also essential, as it ensures that the various actors (NOCs, MNOCs, and local SMEs) operating within the remit of Ghana's oil and gas industry adhere to the rules and regulations, as postulated by Douglas North. In doing so, each organisation is compelled to undertake their responsibilities legitimately.
Addressing the Research Objectives
This study systematically reviews the literatures on local content, the issues pertaining to the definition, and how the concept is implemented by resource-rich economies. Notably, since
Ghana's oil and gas industry is still in its infant stages, the overarching aim of the research is to critically examine how institutions could be used to strengthen the implementation of LCP in Ghana. To achieve this aim, a comprehensive analytical review of the relevant literature on the two main concepts underlying this thesis is used to create the theoretical and conceptual framework for the study, allowing the researcher to formulate the kind of data to be collected. The research findings show the various stakeholders and institutions' perceptions, including some positive effects of the LCP on Ghana's oil and gas industry, and some drawbacks. Furthermore, transparency, fronting and enforcement continue to be major problems, as highlighted in Chapter 4.
Contribution to the Body of Academic Knowledge
This study comprehensively investigates LCP implementation in Ghana's oil and gas industry. Adopting a step-by-step approach, the study provides substantial evidence of the effects that institutions have on LCP implementation on Ghana's oil and gas industry. The study makes significant contributions to the body of academic knowledge in three primary areas.
This study contributes to the theoretical argument on the institutional theory in conjunction with LCP implementation in Ghana's oil and gas industry. The study develops a conceptual and analytical framework, building on North's (1992) theory and the work of Kazzazi & Nouri (2012). The study shows that both the formal and informal actors in institutions have significant effects on the process of implementing LCPs. There are constraints that emerge from both the formal and informal actors. At one extreme are constraints such as constitutions and laws governing economics and politics, and at the other are unwritten taboos, customs, traditions, and beliefs. These formal and informal rules and constraints, and their enforcement, define the incentives and wealth-maximising opportunities for local firms. When institutions are weak, local enterprises, the
private sector, and multinational firms are unable to engage in complex, longstanding, or multiple contract exchanges.
The interview questions and research objectives were formulated using local content and institutions as the guiding principle, as they form the crux of the entire study. The conceptual, analytical and perception model developed in this study shows a comprehensive picture of the various views of stakeholders on Ghana's institutions and LCP implementation. The study shows the effects of LCP and flags some major concerns and drawbacks that impede LCP implementation in the oil and gas industry in Ghana.
Chapter 3 of this study presents the methodological approach adopted, a qualitative and inductive phenomenology employing a thematic analysis. The credibility of the study can be found in the work undertaken and its analysis using the themes produced from the data collection. The study findings show that employing this approach provides a thorough understanding of the implementation of LCP in Ghana's oil and gas industry. A mixed method approach could be taken by other researchers to test the implementation of the LCP empirically.
This study makes a practical contribution in its examination of the institutions and LCP in Ghana's oil and gas industry. The study underscores the positives, and major drawbacks, of the
implementation of the LCP and the subsequent complexities faced by local firms in its enforcement. The study proposes some strategies to enhance the implementation of the LCP and improve local firms' involvement in the industry. Several strategies are recommended to improve the LCP's execution and monitoring process. The LCP model is developed to assist other economies rich in natural resources to holistically benefit from their resources. This model helps the various stakeholders facilitate the implementation of the policy and enhance the involvement of Ghanaian citizens and local firms in the oil and gas industry. Moreover, the LCP implementation model can be used to execute a comparative analysis of the implementation of the LCP in other oil and gas generating nations.
Based on the various research findings aligned with the research aim and objectives, some recommendations were outlined.
The government of Ghana should provide a favourable environment for oil and gas firms to invite foreign investors. This incorporates the stipulation of infrastructure, such as good roads, security assurance, and power supply in the country for local firms to thrive in their operations. A lack of sound policies and legislation, insecurity, unsophisticated technologies, shortage of human resources, and infrastructure all establish an inauspicious environment for potential stakeholders to invest in Ghana's oil and gas industry. The study findings show that the government should invest in infrastructure development and form policies that allow foreign stakeholders to invest in oil and gas activities. Adedeji et al. (2015) suggest that certain indicators could be used to assess local firms' involvement, such as a conducive environment, technical skills, business opportunities, access to funds, and incentives. Thus, the government must acknowledge that these vital indicators create a conducive environment for businesses to run their operations smoothly.
Additionally, the government needs to take strict measures to reform and invest in the educational industry to offer better education for Ghanaian citizens. This should incorporate advanced practical equipment and theoretical materials to absorb knowledge and transfer technology to the oil and gas industry in Ghana. The government should also support the Ghanaian financial industry by providing the necessary funds for local firms to take part in oil and gas activities. This would give the local firms a competitive advantage in the industry.
The study findings reveal that the absence of implementation of the LCP has hindered the industry. The government should take responsibility and ensure there is sufficient compliance with the LCP. The government should ensure that the implementation is rigorously accountable to the Petroleum Commission, Ghana National Petroleum Cooperation and other parastatals. All these organisations must report Ghanaian government. Also, there should be credible consideration of the LCP objectives in the industry.
To ensure capacity building and sophisticated technology transfer, MNOCs should team up with local firms in technical operations to enhance their core skills. Efforts should be made to promote joint ventures between local firms and MNOCs in Ghana's oil and gas industry. This would encourage investment in top-notch infrastructure that meets international standards. MNOCs and local firms should collaborate with the Ghanaian educational institutions to provide intensive programmes such as research and development, and knowledge and technology transfer. MNOCs should avoid using local firms as a front to secure contracts within the industry. Instead, MNOCs should participate in capacity-building initiatives, create jobs for locals, and genuinely collaborate with local firms.
5.2 Limitations and Future Research
As with most research studies, limitations prevent total comprehensiveness and precision. This research encountered various circumstances impacting the study. To begin with, the sample size was restricted, and this small sample size might affect the validity of the study. However, the effect of data saturation, the intensity of information, and data collection in the study give a philosophical advancement of LCP understanding and enforcement in Ghana's oil and gas industry. As reviewed in the methodology chapter, a qualitative methodology approach is embraced. This study could be validated by employing a distinct methodological method in further research. In addition, future research could be undertaken to determine the results of this research using a mixed method approach or a quantitative research method.
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