Роль ценностей и установок учителей в изменении межкультурных отношений в школе тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 19.00.05, кандидат наук Бомбиери Лучия

  • Бомбиери Лучия
  • кандидат науккандидат наук
  • 2020, ФГАОУ ВО «Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики»
  • Специальность ВАК РФ19.00.05
  • Количество страниц 177
Бомбиери Лучия. Роль ценностей и установок учителей в изменении межкультурных отношений в школе: дис. кандидат наук: 19.00.05 - Социальная психология. ФГАОУ ВО «Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики». 2020. 177 с.

Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Бомбиери Лучия

List of contents:

General introduction 7 I. Theoretical approaches to studying intercultural relations in school settings

1. Inter-group Relations, Human Values and Acculturation Theories

1.1 Social Identity Theory

1.2 Inter-group Contact Hypothesis

1.3 Immigrants' identity: a tentative synthesis between SIT and Contact Hypothesis

1.4 Emotion regulation and empathy as essential soft skills

1.5 Tolerance and group categorisation

1.6 Threat Perception and discrimination

1.7 Schwartz Theory of Human Basic Values

1.8 Acculturation Expectations

2. Children Characteristics and School Setting

2.1 Development of Social Perception in Childhood

2.1.1 Attitudes' development

2.1.2 Categorization in childhood

2.1.3 Development of stereotypes and prejudice

2.2 Cultural environment: schools in Italy and in Russia

2.2.1 Teachers within national school systems

2.2.2 The increased presence of (im)migrants in schools

2.3 Teachers as role models

2.3.1 Teachers' modelling and students' imitative learning

2.3.2 Role modelling and intercultural relations

2.3.3 Levels of intercultural interactions

2.4 The current project

II. Empirical research on role of teachers' values and attitudes in changing intercultural

relations in school setting

3. Research I - Teachers' survey

3.1 Rationale and Hypotheses

3.2 Method

3.2.1 Participants

3.2.2 Procedure

3.2.3 Variables

3.3 Results

3.3.1 Descriptive statistics of the studied variables

3.3.2 First and Second Hypotheses 65 3.4 Discussion

4 Research 2 - Teachers' instructions and group perception

4.1 Rationale and Hypotheses

4.2 Method

4.2.1 Participants

4.2.2 Procedure

4.2.3 Technique - Vignette

4.2.4 Variables

4.3 Results

4.4 Discussion

5 Research 2 bis - Newcomer's identity representation

5.1 Rationale and Hypotheses

5.2 Method

5.2.1 Participants

5.2.2 Procedure

5.2.3 Technique - Drawings

5.2.4 The coding

5.3 Results

5.3.1 Themes included into the representation

5.3.2 Gender and country differences

5.4 Discussion 103 General Discussion and Conclusions 107 List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Appendices



Рекомендованный список диссертаций по специальности «Социальная психология», 19.00.05 шифр ВАК

Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «Роль ценностей и установок учителей в изменении межкультурных отношений в школе»


This project has been a secret wish, and almost forgotten, for quite some time. I am really into teaching, which has been an important part of me for more than 15 years now. The best aspect of it is that it keeps you on your toes. You cannot assume that you have all the answers because the questions keep shifting and transforming. In our classrooms, at the primary school level at least, we meet the future ahead of the others: both the potentials and the struggles of our pupils are a reminder that these tensions should be resolved to build our tomorrow. And rarely this battle is fought on the ground of the contents or the knowledge transmission.

For this reason, among others, I have chosen this topic: the role of teachers' values and attitudes in changing intercultural relations in school settings.

It is a virtual continuation of my research on social processes of bullying for the Master Program. At the time, the target was the role of the peers and the normative environment in explaining anti-social behaviour. This time I decided to dig deeper in this normative aspect by focusing more on the adults who are in charge of the rules, both as ruler and as guardians. And instead of a general victim (due to physical or social status), the broad category of (im)migrants seems responding to a universal call among school staff that nowadays are conveying their efforts and energy to address this emergency successfully.

Because the final goal of any research in psychology and education is measured in proactive strategies and higher levels of wellbeing among all members of the community, we harbor the hope that this work could contribute to a deeper understanding of the rationale and the possible applications that better fit the actual problem.

Похожие диссертационные работы по специальности «Социальная психология», 19.00.05 шифр ВАК

Заключение диссертации по теме «Социальная психология», Бомбиери Лучия

Main findings

In chapter 1, I reviewed studies and theories targeting cultural processes, group interactions, values and acculturation. Also, the following chapter 2 focused on those fundamental stages of development and characteristics of school settings which provide an extensive background for the complementary phases that comprised this investigation. The main body of literature was retrieved from international peer-reviewed journals and it was mostly published in English. The authors themselves were from different countries and the constructs which were considered offered solid ground for being applicable to this research on the basis of two main considerations: (1) the authors, who investigated group processes, have been replicating and confirming findings across time and contexts (i.e. from Social Identity Theory to Social Developmental Identity Theory); (2) two large international projects have involved scholars and gathered samples from extremely diverse national and cultural backgrounds.

Across the reviewed studies, several elements have been highlighted. The SIT offered the starting point to address group processes as relevant for the individuals. As a general framework, it was not directly included and/or manipulated, but its omission would have deprived the research of some basic vocabulary and assumptions. Further, many choices that are shaping the later field study have been made on the premises offered by the SIDT, and the two theories share important elements.

Tolerance and empathy are providing a more sophisticated angle on assessment of individual's reactions to the phenomenon, because they include essential emotional components, either negative (anxiety) or positive (sympathy and compassion). They are

also confirming that some cognitive and behavioural outcomes are not fully conscious, thus they provide a justification for using methods addressing implicit beliefs.

Considering the ambitions of the overall multi-layered design, it seemed vital to rely on theoretical and methodological accomplishments which are commonly acknowledged to be scientifically sound. However valuable these empirical investigations are, they have not yet succeeded at exploiting their inter-dependent roles, especially in the most recent context of migrations. Thus, rather than addressing some key limitations, the aim of this work seems to fall into the category of a natural extension and confirmation of the validity of these constructs. Therefore, the most interesting elaboration in this section can be found in an original combination of factors that were rearranged and included in the following empirical studies at different stages, either as content or methods.

Two fundamental bodies of research have been chosen for the first study: basic human values (Schwartz, cit.) and Berry's Acculturation Strategies (cit.) Though with some limitations, these paradigms have been largely employed in cross-cultural studies and are now benefitting from the convergence and extensions coming from an increased research activity.

In chapter 3, the incidence and dynamics of human values and acculturation strategies among representative of the school staff have been observed. Even though the entity of the sample suggests a conservative approach in interpreting the findings, there are several results which are noteworthy.

In first place, the first confront was between cultural and professional characteristics: contrary to the original hypotheses, we reported on some differences in values and acculturation preferences linked to the professional role in the educational institutions, the level and the field of expertise. Though partially significant, these aspects are suggesting that the professional background of the participants is an underestimated (and not fully addressed) factor which is changing and changeable separately from the cultural, and more stable, traits. Also, the mediating role of tolerance is offering a wider relation between high-order values and acculturation expectations: even those values that

have previously, and repeatedly, failed at showing direct effects, have indeed been significantly related to them in combination with tolerance.

Having shown in Study 1 that cultural factors, professional features, and tolerance are all contributing in modulating responses to multicultural societies, in Study 2 I looked at whether the effects of the established normative context as set by the adults might temper the effects of group processes among pupils.

In chapter 4, prosocial or behavioural norms were introduced through oral instructions. Teachers were reminding of two particular codes of conduct that are often regarded as valuable in a classroom, though in different situations: how to interact with each other and how to respect the general rules of the shared environment. Both instructions were connected to favourable attitudes towards the newcomers, but the welcoming, tolerant and open set showed a stronger effect. In addition to the priming, it was observed how the perception of distance of the individual child to their group of friends (ingroup) and between the two groups also affected these attitudes. Notably, the inter-group distance did not differ in the two countries, but some discrepancies were highlighted in the ingroup identification of respondents in Russia and Italy.

Finally, in chapter 5, the mental picture of an immigrant from the point of view of the host society members was considered. Based on given clues, namely a poor Socio-economic status, cultural distance and mixed emotions, the immigrant's identity was scrutinized and reinvented, matching the unique intake of each child. And it can be noted that all the factors were included at some extent, but the emotional components, whether in the form of discomfort or projected emotional wellbeing, were the main concern in both countries.

Main conclusion from the empirical research:

The values of Self-Transcendence positively related to the migrants' integration acculturation expectation of teachers. Values of Openness to change did not have a significant positive relationship with acculturation expectations.

The mediating role of the teachers' tolerance is revealed, suggesting a broader relationship between values and acculturation expectations. Even those values that did not have a direct impact on the acculturation expectation of integration (for example, the


values of Openness to change) were largely associated with them through tolerance. Attitudes to tolerance reinforced the positive relationship between the values of Openness to change and Self-Transcendence with acculturation attitudes to the integration of migrants.

The results showed that prosocial and disciplinary attitudes being introduced through oral instructions from teachers were associated with a favorable attitude to the newcomer-migrant, but the influence of prosocial attitudes was stronger than disciplinary ones.

The study of perceived cultural distance of the individual child with his group of friends (in-group) and between the two groups (their group and outgroup of newcomer migrant) showed that intergroup distance was the same in Russia and Italy. Closer distance with outgroup contributed to a positive perception of the newcomer- migrant as well as their group in both countries.

Ingroup identification of children in both Italy and Russia contributed to a positive attitude towards the newcomer migrant group, but only in Italy the identification with one's own group did reduce the stigma of the newcomer migrant group.

The results showed that when creating a visual image of a migrant peer, the children of the receiving society are guided by psychological factors. Both in Italy and in Russia, the significance of the emotional factor in the image of a migrant peer was revealed. However, in Italy, students pay more attention to the manifestation of positive characteristics, in Russia - to the manifestation of negative characteristics.

Additionally, differences in value and acculturation preferences related to the professional role in educational institutions, the level and scope of competence were identified. These aspects are not of primary importance, but they indicate an insufficient consideration of vocational training as a factor of positive changes of intercultural relations in school settings.


The novelty of the project can be found in the attempted combination of theories, that have been previously applied mostly to the general population, to a specific relational context (schools) formed by adults and minors.

For this purpose, we have focused on two interconnected levels which are particularly significant to embrace this issue in all its complexity: the psychology of acculturation and intercultural relations in combination with the developmental aspects of psychology and education. Thus, we provided evidence supporting the interplay of these frames, confirming the complex dynamics of inter-group relations in their permanent and developmental connotations by introducing new tools and techniques.

Theoretically speaking, the combination of elements from the aforementioned theories have been manipulated to gain a more detailed model of how they act and interact among school staff and among students. The proposed model offers another element of distinctiveness from the previous research by investigating the importance of teachers' beliefs when integrating these demands which are not strictly-speaking cognitive (or exclusively related to explicit knowledge).

The role of the teachers is considered in its peculiar double function of direct agent and moderator. The individual set of values and attitudes are expressed on a personal level: being in contact with a limited number of students and colleagues at time, their action can be seen by some as not particularly effective. On a larger scale, however, the synchronized action of the school staff working across a country has an important moderating effect on how children elaborate and prioritize the information available not only in school but also in their social environment.

To address these issues, we chose to diversify the methodology according to the target. When working directly with adults, it seemed appropriate to replicate tools which provided reliability and a proved record of applicability with this specific target across countries. Per contra, for the intervention with children, it seemed preferable to use other techniques and to adapt tools which were elaborated for senior respondents to meet the specific characteristics of a younger population, mostly by shortening and simplifying the scales or using projective instruments.

Finally, it is possible to elicit the practical significance of this study: teachers can

really influence how new generations are going to shape relationships among different

cultures and face new challenges. Their role must be understood and they should be

aware of the possible outcomes of their intervention with minors. The future of Western


societies and their evolution, whether they embrace multiculturalism or racism, is matter-of-factly forged in several contexts, but the school system is certainly not a marginal one. For this, a possible applicability of the findings of this study can be easily found in implementing on-going training and preparatory courses for aspirant teachers. It is also intended to provide scientific ground for a collective recognition of the importance of this profession.

Theoretical implications

The systematic literature review and the three empirical studies included in this dissertation have important implications in relation to existing theories and past empirical research.

On a theoretical level, the present results are enriching the existing knowledge on inter-group dynamics, not only within the school context. Firstly, consistently with previous research on values and acculturation preferences within the host community (Sapienza, Hichy, Guarnera, & Nuovo, 2010), the direct effects of Self-Enhancement, Self-Transcendence, and Conservation on acculturation strategies have been replicated. However, by adding Tolerance as a mediator, this study reported on unfolding indirect effects which linked all the values (even those which to date failed at directly connect) with each strategy: these findings open more undercurrent paths that can be taken further to better explain intercultural relationships from the mainstream society's point of view.

Secondly, the effect of teachers' attitudes on the pupils' academic performance has been long established (among the first studies, refer to Hanushek, 1989). Still, the link between teachers' attitudes and students' pro-social skills is not fully explored (Hwang & Evans, 2011) and this study offers a valuable addition to the field. In our previous work, it was detected an effect of prosocial norms (as elicited within the group of peers) in contrasting exclusion and bullying of weaker fellow students. Partially overlapping this, the normative environment is now being addressed through instructions from the "authority" and the outsider is a member with a (im)migrant background. Interestingly, other psychological constructs, such as ingroup identification and intergroup distance, has shown culture-specific differences that can be further investigated.

Finally, consistently with previous research (Kustatscher, cit.), the results on how children perceive the psychological identity of immigrant peers can be considered a meaningful extension to understanding of cross-cultural relations in school. Not only was this one of the few studies conducted via drawing techniques, but also the findings introduced an important element of novelty in registering a higher sensitivity to psychological/emotional components than to contextual/cultural one.

Implications for educational policymakers, teacher educators, and practitioners

In this section, I summarise the main implications of this thesis for ongoing teaching preparation, and offer some practical suggestions for school staff.

On a practical level, the present findings seem relevant in the field of education, educational psychology, and developmental psychology. For teachers (but similarly, more broadly, for school staff and caregivers) they can be mostly applied in the daily interactions and for trainings. The awareness that children are sensitive to a verbal priming when facing a new and foreign member in their class-group should remind the adults that the classroom, the school, and the surroundings, are never a fully neutral environment for newcomers with an immigration background. Personal and professional factors can foster a more (or less) welcoming atmosphere and they can be partially changed through ad-hoc trainings. Other professionals in the field of mental health can also potentially benefit from these findings, especially when considering how positive and negative emotions are perceived and how emotional competences are often overlooked in formal education. That applies to those practitioners working specifically with children (i.e., in schools) or in any field involving cross-cultural meetings and/or clashes. On a different level, the country differences highlight persistent challenges that Italian and Russian immigration policies are facing at several levels, not only in schools, and some suggestions are offered based on the present results.

Limitations and Future Directions

In this work, we attempted a linear, still broad, investigation on the factors facilitating positive attitudes towards immigrants in classrooms. As much as the findings can be valuable to the scientific community, we need to acknowledge a number of limitations that must be considered when interpreting the overall impact of these results.

- The recruitment process has been quite troublesome. This is especially evident in the field study with children, where the comparison was conducted between Russia and Italy: notwithstanding the effort to gain access to diverse geographical and socio-demo-graphical representatives in both countries, an equal number of participants was not achieved. Other characteristics could not be matched or measured, but it depends on the composition of the general population in those countries so their possible impact cannot be reported and discussed.

- The sampling focused on two countries with important differences in the organization of the school system, but which shared a key feature in how the teacher-student relationship develops: each class-group supposedly has the same main teacher for the whole duration of primary school (4/5 years). At the beginning, it was pursued a third sample that partially overlapped the other two sample characteristics but introduced a clear difference regarding to this specific point: in the UK (the third provisional target population), the class-groups change teachers every year, starting in primary school. For practical reasons, this sample has not been gathered, and therefore this possible alternative path has not been specifically addressed.

- Using online surveying has undisputed benefits, but it can also be limiting the reachable target to those with access to social media and who are familiar with technological tools. Presenting the survey in English was also a choice, so to open it as extensively as possible. The teachers, and school staff in general, are considered to be highly educated, so these limitations only partially affect the representativeness of the sample. Still, it cannot be ignored that those with limited IT savvy and English knowledge were unable to take part in this study.

This project tried to cover several angles and perspectives, but a lot of questions still remain totally or partially unanswered. I am advancing just a few which are directly stemming from these findings.

- The mediating role of tolerance registered among school practitioners has no parallel within the general population. Further, other factors are expected to play a role, e.g., threat perception.

- The shown response to teachers' instructions at this age (10-11 years old) was anticipated based on the recognized value of the relationship between teachers and pupils. However, this relationship changes in time, and it can be affected by personal and/or situational circumstances. The possible extension, here, ranges from the comparison with other countries (and school systems) to a longitudinal study on the developments of this rapport within different age-group children.

- As for immigrant's identity perception, it is advisable to move from the overly inclusive definition of cultural distance used in this prompt, to an investigation addressing more specific cultural elements, i.e., geographical origins, religion, traditions.

In broad terms, this thesis has added empirical weight to the hypothesis that teachers may meaningfully conceptualize intergroup processes, strapping those motivational forces that can hinder a thriving learning environment and fostering the resources that have proved to enhance cohesion and acceptance.

More specifically, this thesis contributes both to our understanding of the ways in which children from the receiving population respond to multicultural encounters and to our awareness of the subtle changes in value contexts to which children are sensitive. In the face of rapidly increasing multi-ethnic population in Europe, there is a demand for teachers of all subjects and school grades to be well prepared to teach in culturally diverse classrooms. Results from this thesis offer several complementary tools for assessing and enhancing culturally responsive teaching and learning. In line with previous studies, but also adding unique methodological insights, this dissertation extends research on school and classroom practices for dealing with cultural diversity.

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