"The role of executive functions in emotion regulation" тема диссертации и автореферата по ВАК РФ 19.00.01, кандидат наук Мохаммед Абдул-Рахеем
Оглавление диссертации кандидат наук Мохаммед Абдул-Рахеем
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Executive functions as a possible cognitive basis of emotion regulation (Literature Review)
1.1 The concept of emotion regulation
1.1.2 Focus on cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression
1.1.3 Assessment of emotion regulation strategies: self-reports versus laboratory studies
1.2 The concept of executive functions
1.2.4 Non-affective and affective executive functions
1.3 The relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation
1.3.1 Updating and emotion regulation
1.3.2 Shifting and emotion regulation
1.3.3 Inhibition and emotion regulation
1.3.4 Summary of the studies of the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation
1.4 The present research
Chapter 2: A study of non-affective and affective executive functions
2.1 Rationale and hypothesis
2.2.3 Task design
2.2.5 Data preparation
Chapter 3: An examination of the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies: self-reports versus laboratory studies
3.1 Rationale and hypotheses
3.2.2 Materials and study design
3.2.3 Data collection and reduction
3.2.4 Data analyses
Chapter 4: An examination of the role of executive functions in emotion regulation strategies
4.4 General Discussion
Summary and Conclusions
List of figures
List of tables
Appendix A. ERQ questionnaire
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Введение диссертации (часть автореферата) на тему «"The role of executive functions in emotion regulation"»
Emotion regulation (also referred to as emotion self-regulation) encompasses the processes and strategies that are involved in the modulation of experience and expressions of emotions (Gross, 1998, 2015; McRae & Gross, 2020). The regulation of an emotion could occur at any stage of the emotion trajectory. This could be in the form of down-regulation (aimed at reducing the intensity of emotional experience) or upregulation (aimed at increasing the intensity of emotional experience). Different aspects of emotion could be subjected to some form of regulation such as subjective experience, valence of the emotion, emotional expressions, and physiological responses related to emotions (Gross, 1998).
The ability to regulate emotions cannot be underestimated. This topic has become important considering its role in psychosocial wellbeing. It is well documented that a higher ability to regulate one's emotions is associated with important positive health outcomes such as better mental health and psychosocial wellbeing (Gross, 2014; Tamir, 2016; Verzeletti et al., 2016). Conversely, outcomes of poor emotion regulation are associated with depressive symptoms (Joormann & Stanton, 2016; Visted et al., 2018), poor psychosocial wellbeing (Nasso et al., 2019), and poor mental health (Aldao et al., 2010; Mennin & Farach, 2007).
Although many strategies of emotion regulation are described in the literature, not all are considered adaptive. For instance, rumination (Aker et al., 2014; Besharat et al., 2013; Zawadzki, 2015), worry (Knepp et al., 2015; Neudert et al., 2017), and excessive use of suppression (Appleton et al., 2013; Cai et al., 2019; Nittel et al., 2018) have been considered as maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Extreme forms of maladaptive strategies, which have both short-term and long-term impacts on physical health, include excessive use of alcohol and drugs (Dvorak et al., 2014; Petit et al., 2015).
The most influential model of emotion regulation is the process model by Gross (1998, 2015). This model classifies emotion regulation strategies based on the time-course of
emotion generation. The notable distinction is the antecedent-focused strategies (e.g., cognitive reappraisal) and response-focused strategies (e.g., expressive suppression).
The implementation of emotion regulation strategies is considered to have cognitive roots (Schmeichel & Tang, 2015; Suri et al., 2013). It has further been posited that higher cognitive abilities could subserve successful application of emotion regulation strategies (Tull & Aldao, 2015). Hence, cognitive processes which include executive functions are thought to be at the heart of emotion regulation. As a result, more efficient executive functions are expected to result in better emotion regulation outcomes. This argument, however, has received little empirical support so far.
Executive functions (also referred to as cognitive control or executive control) are broadly defined as higher-order cognitive processes that modulate the functioning of the processes at low-level cognition (Friedman & Miyake, 2017; Miyake et al., 2000). Executive functions subserve the control and regulation of thought and action repertoire (Friedman et al., 2006). The prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, and subthalamic nucleus (brain regions), which are associated with executive processes, also play a mediating role in inhibitory control (Alvarez & Emory, 2006; Diamond, 2013). Although several models have been developed to explain executive functions, the most acclaimed among them is the unity-diversity framework (Miyake et al., 2000), which posits three types of executive functions: updating, shifting, and inhibition.
Several studies investigated the relationship between executive functions and cognitive abilities such as planning (Miyake et al., 2000), maintenance of goals (Kane & Engle, 2003), and dual tasking (D'esposito et al., 1995). Individual differences in executive functions in a healthy population and their role in psychopathology have received considerable attention. Other factors that influence executive functions have been investigated, too. These include the influence of mood on executive functions. For instance, an intense negative emotion undermines inhibitory control, while a milder negative emotion improves inhibitory control (Pessoa et al., 2012). While negative mood is argued to impair
working memory updating (Curci et al., 2013), positive mood facilitates the ability to switch from one task to another, although accompanied by an increased distraction (Dreisbach & Goschke, 2004).
There is paucity of research on the relationship between executive functioning and emotion regulation. Specific ways in which executive functions relate to emotion regulation strategies are poorly understood. This can be attributed to different and not directly comparable operationalizations of executive functions as well as of emotion regulation. In most of the studies, a higher level of updating is positively associated with cognitive reappraisal strategy of emotion regulation but not with expressive suppression (Pe et al., 2013a, 2013b, 2015; Schmeichel et al., 2008). Positive (Liang et al., 2017), negative (McRae et al., 2012), and no association (Malooly et al., 2013; Sperduti et al., 2017) have been reported in the relationship between shifting and emotion regulation strategies. The majority of the studies failed to find a relationship between inhibition and suppression strategy of emotion regulation (Aker et al., 2014; Hendricks & Buchanan, 2016; McRae et al., 2012). One study reported a positive association between inhibition and cognitive reappraisal (Cohen & Mor, 2018). Whereas some studies examined executive functions using affective stimuli (e.g., Pe et al., 2015), others did not (e.g., Hendricks & Buchanan, 2016; Xiu et al., 2016). It can be suggested that since emotion regulation is based on affective information, executive functions that deal with emotional content may be more linked to emotion regulation strategies. Emotion regulation has been assessed using different measures and focusing on strategies which also leads to inconsistent findings (e.g., Gyurak et al., 2012; Sperduti et al., 2017).
The main aim of this PhD thesis is to explore the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation strategies. This includes the development of the non-affective and affective tasks measuring executive functions. This would enable one to understand the extent to which non-affective and affective contents in executive functions are related to emotion regulation strategies. The thesis further seeks to examine the
effectiveness of two main emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, measured via self-report and psychophysiological responses. This would allow one to understand how executive functions contribute to the successful implementation of emotion regulation strategies.
Objectives of the research
1. To analyze the literature on executive functions and emotion regulation.
2. To develop a battery of executive function tasks using affective and non-affective content.
3. To develop experimental procedures for measuring emotion regulation in the laboratory.
4. To compare different measures of the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies.
5. To examine the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation.
Executive functions are the cognitive basis of emotion regulation and therefore predict successful implementation of emotion regulation strategies.
1. There will be a positive association between executive functions processing non-affective and affective content.
2. Reduction of negative emotional state by the emotion regulation strategies would manifest itself in self-report, facial expressions, and autonomic responses.
3. Cognitive reappraisal would result in a larger reduction in negative emotions than in expressive suppression.
4. Updating would be positively associated with cognitive reappraisal.
5. Inhibition would be positively associated with expressive suppression.
6. Shifting ability would be related to more effective use of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression.
7. Executive functions processing affective content would be more strongly associated with emotion regulation compared to executive functions processing non-affective content.
Overall, 2281 participants (mean age = 20.55, SD = 3.41, female = 61.3%) were recruited for the experiments. They were largely student volunteers who took part in the experiments in exchange for course credits. The participants signed informed consent before taking part in the experiments. All experiments were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Higher School of Economics.
An experimental method was used for the studies. N-back, letter-number, and Stroop tasks were used to measure updating, shifting, and inhibition respectively. Emotion regulation strategies were assessed using an emotion regulation task accompanied by self-reports, electromyography (EMG) of zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii, skin conductance response (SCR), heart rate (HR) measurement, and the Gross Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). These tasks were carried out at the behavioural and electroencephalography (EEG) laboratories of the Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, Higher School of Economics. The experimental stimuli were obtained largely from two sources, the EU-Emotion stimulus set (O'Reilly et al., 2012, 2015) and the International Affective Picture System (IAPS: Lang et al., 1997).
ActiChamp (Brain Products, Germany), a data collecting system, was used to extract and filter the psychophysiological data during the emotion regulation task.
1 This is comprised of 84 in Chapter 2, 64 in Chapter 3, 63 and 81 in Chapter 4. However, the sample in Chapter 3 was part of the sample in Chapter 4, Study 2.
Statistical analysis included, mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlational tests, Friedman's analysis, Benjamini and Hochberg's (1995) correction for false discovery rate, Cliff's 5 (Cliff, 1993), and /-tests. The statistical tests were carried out using IBM SPSS 21.0, JASP 0.13.1.0, and STATISTICA 12.
The PhD thesis makes a contribution to further scientific knowledge on mechanisms of emotion regulation. Attempts were made in the past to examine the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation which produced inconsistent findings. The current thesis extends this knowledge by fine-tuning the operationalization of these concepts to understand how executive functions contribute to emotion regulation success. Thus, for the first time, executive functions were measured using tasks containing non-affective and affective content. This led to the development of a new battery of tasks measuring executive functions. Although Pessoa (2009) posited that affective content in tasks does have an impact on executive functioning, this was not supported in the present research. Hence, the present findings support the view that affective content in these tasks does not influence performance in a healthy population (cf. Schweizer et al., 2019).
Emotion regulation strategies were also examined using multiple measures. Self-reports, measures of peripheral psychophysiology, and questionnaires were among the methods used. Since the experience and expression of emotions can be observed via self-report and psychophysiological responses, the emotion regulation strategies were assessed from these outcomes as well. The current findings add to what is already known on the association between executive functions and emotion regulation. The evidence of the positive association between updating and cognitive reappraisal supports the growing body of research that reported similar results. For the first time, the ability to inhibit automatic responses was demonstrated to be related to the frequent use of suppression of emotional expression. The results provided further evidence that emotion regulation strategies differ based on the measure used during the assessment. Within the framework of the process
model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998), the current findings contribute to the distinction between cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Self-reported unpleasant emotion was shown to be reduced in greater extent by cognitive reappraisal than by expressive suppression. These findings could explain the previous inconsistent findings on the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation.
The theoretical significance of this research is the contribution to the refinement of existing theories such as the dual-competition framework (Pessoa, 2009) and the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998). According to the dual-competition framework (Pessoa, 2009), executive functions are influenced by affective content. However, based on the results of the present research and recent studies (e.g., Schweizer et al., 2019), it is suggested that the influence of affective content in executive functioning is not prevalent in a healthy population but in individuals with affective disorders. According to the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998), cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression differ according to their temporal application and their consequences. This distinction has received empirical support across multiple measures.
The practical implication of the research is a potential application of the present findings in clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience as well. The present findings would also be important for the content of future textbooks or manuals in these areas. As executive functions and emotion regulation feature in these areas, the present findings could be incorporated into what is already known about these topics and their relationship. As higher inhibitory control leads to the successful implementation of suppression, training on inhibition could help improve suppression in emotion regulation. Clinicians, in their efforts at helping people with emotion dysregulation, could resort to training programs aimed at improving executive functions. Hence, one possible target for improving emotion regulation is executive functions.
Statements for the defense
1. Some executive functions can be considered as the cognitive basis of emotion
regulation. Updating is positively associated with the effectiveness of the cognitive
reappraisal strategy of emotion regulation, whereas inhibition is positively associated with the frequency of the use of the expressive suppression strategy of emotion regulation.
2. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are effective in downregulating negative emotion. However, the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies manifests itself differently depending on the type of measures used for assessment. Differences between cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are greatest in self-report and heart rate deceleration measures.
3. Executive functions, namely updating, shifting, and inhibition, do not differ with respect to affective and non-affective content. Non-affective and affective measures of executive functions yield similar patterns of associations with measures of emotion regulation strategies.
Approbation and introduction of results
The outcome and content of this research were discussed at various seminars and scientific conferences, as listed below.
1. Society for Affective Science virtual meeting - Gater.Town. April 13-16, 2021. Oral presentation: The role of executive functions in emotion regulation.
2. Society for Affective Science virtual meeting - Gater.Town. April 13-16, 2021. Oral presentation: Emotion regulation strategies depending on empathy: Psychophysiological study.
3. International forum, Cognitive neuroscience. December 11-12, 2020, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Poster presentation: The role of executive functions in emotion regulation.
4. Psy-HSE: Conference of Young Scientists. Contemporary Issues of Psychological Science. October 31-November 2, 2019. Moscow, Russia. Oral presentation: Individual differences in executive functions and emotion regulation.
5. International Society for Research on Emotion. July 10-13, 2019. Amsterdam. Flash talk and poster presentation: Updating of emotional stimuli in working memory: The role of mood and emotion regulation.
6. 5th Conference "Cognitive Science in Moscow: New Research". July 19, 2019. Poster presentation: The role of induced mood and emotion regulation in updating of valenced information.
The content of the dissertation is presented in three published articles. They are listed below:
1. Mohammed, A.-R., Kosonogov, V., & Lyusin, D. (2021). Expressive suppression versus cognitive reappraisal: Effects on self-report and peripheral psychophysiology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 167, 30-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.06.007
2. Mohammed, A.-R. & Lyusin D. (2020). The role of affective updating in the cognitive reappraisal strategy of emotion regulation. Psychological Thought, 13(2), 302-321. https://doi.org/10.37708/psyct.v13i2.515
3. Mohammed, A.-R. (2019). A battery of cognitive tasks for the assessment of non-affective and affective executive functioning. The Russian Journal of Cognitive Science, 6(3), 38-49.
Structure of the dissertation
Chapter 1 includes the review of the present literature on executive functions and emotion regulation including their assessments. Chapter 2 describes the development and analysis of the new battery of tasks measuring non-affective and affective executive functions. Chapter 3 presents the assessment of the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies. Chapter 4 describes the study of the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation. A summary of the findings and the general discussion including the conclusions were also provided.
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Заключение диссертации по теме «Общая психология, психология личности, история психологии», Мохаммед Абдул-Рахеем
Summary and Conclusions
The relevant role emotion regulation plays cannot be underestimated. The important contribution of emotion regulation in psychosocial wellbeing and the attainment of social goals is well documented (Gross, 2014; Tamir, 2016; Verzeletti et al., 2016). The ability to successfully engage in any emotion regulation activity is said to be influenced by cognitive factors such as executive functions (Schmeichel & Tang, 2015; Suri et al., 2013). Although several executive functions have been mentioned in the literature, converging research postulates that there are three executive functions that are separate at the component level but unite to form a complex executive functions model (Friedman & Miyake, 2017; Miyake et al., 2000). They are updating, shifting, and inhibition. However, the specific ways in which these executive functions contribute to emotion regulation strategies are poorly understood.
To explore the various ways through which executive functions are related to emotion regulation, executive functions and emotion regulation were examined separately. This involved the theoretical underpinnings of executive functions and the role of affective content in tasks measuring executive functions. Emotion regulation was investigated by highlighting the models and the strategies adopted in the regulation of emotion including their assessment. Next, was the investigation of the specific ways executive functions were related to emotion regulation strategies. Thus, specific executive functions (i.e., updating, shifting, and inhibition) were explored in relation to two emotion regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression).
These objectives were achieved by presenting the state of the literature on executive functions and emotion regulation (Chapter 1). Here, the various theoretical models of executive functions and emotion regulation including the tasks often used in their examination were reviewed. The revision of the literature also included empirical studies conducted on executive functions processing non-affective and affective materials, assessment of emotion regulation strategies, and the association between executive functions and emotion regulation strategies. This brought to light the general impression on the state
of research on executive functions and emotion regulation. The next stage involved various empirical studies. Specifically, a new battery of tasks was developed to examine how affective content influences the tasks measuring executive functions (Chapter 2). The assessment of emotion regulation strategies was also explored to understand how the outcome of these strategies are manifested in self-report and peripheral psychophysiological responses (Chapter 3). Having dissected executive functions and emotion regulation separately, this allowed for the examination of the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation strategies (Chapter 4). Taking all together, each of the four empirical studies aimed to clarify the nature of executive functions and emotion regulation and the specific ways they are related. Specifically, the research questions that were intended to be answered in the various chapters of the thesis were:
1. What are the theoretical underpinnings of executive functions and emotion regulation? What is the current state of the literature on the association between executive functions and emotion regulation? (Chapter 1);
2. Does affective content in the tasks measuring executive functions influence the performances of executive functions? Does it occur across all executive functions or is it peculiar to specific executive functions? (Chapter 2);
3. How effective are cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies? What is the comparative effectiveness of these strategies when assessed via self-report and psychophysiological measures? Specifically, do the emotion regulation strategies show similar outcomes as manifested in self-reports and psychophysiological responses? (Chapter 3);
4. What is the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation strategies? Will measures of executive functions in affective tasks be more related to emotion regulation strategies; or the affective content in the executive functions task does not matter in this relationship? (Chapter 4).
To have a general insight into the research questions formulated above, the literature reviewed provided more information on the existing studies of executive functions and emotion regulation (Chapter 1), this led to the development of a new battery of tasks measuring executive functions processing non-affective and affective information (Chapter 2). An experiment was also conducted on the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies using self-report and psychophysiological responses (Chapter 3). This allowed to directly estimate the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation strategies (Chapter 4).
In the next sections, the main findings of the systematic review of literature coupled with the four empirical studies conducted are summarized. These studies would be described in terms of how they address the research questions and their contribution to the outline of this dissertation. The theoretical and practical implications including the limitations and recommendations for future studies are provided as well.
Main findings and conclusions
In Chapter 1, the analysis of the literature on executive functions processing affective content showed that executive functions are impaired in individuals with affective disorders. A large body of research showed that individuals with varying degrees of affective disorders also report disruptions of affective content in executive functions. Little is known about executive functions processing non-affective and affective materials in a healthy population. The review conducted on the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies showed discrepancies in the type of measure deployed. While self-report measures consistently showed cognitive reappraisal as the most effective strategy, mixed findings were reported on the use of psychophysiological measures. The use of varied paradigms in the assessment of the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies could explain the pattern of results obtained. Limited research characterized the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation. The role of affect was not given the needed attention in the association between executive functions and emotion regulation.
The main findings on executive function processing non-affective and affective content were reported in Chapter 2. No mean differences were observed between the performance related to non-affective and affective versions of updating, shifting, and inhibition tasks. Medium positive correlations between the non-affective and affective versions of the updating and inhibition tasks were also observed. This suggests that both versions capture similar psychological constructs (i.e., executive functions), although they are not identical. The results of the study do not support the dual-competition framework (Pessoa, 2009) which posits that affective content influences executive functions.
In Chapter 3, a comparison of the measures of the emotion regulation strategies was carried out. Specifically, self-reports and psychophysiological measures of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression were examined. The difference between cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression was observed only in self-report and HR deceleration. In all the measures used to assess emotion regulation strategies, different patterns of the effectiveness of the emotion regulation strategies were observed. This suggests that the use of multiple measures in the assessment of emotion regulation strategies would be more appropriate.
The main findings on the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation are reported in Chapter 4. The two experiments showed that higher updating of affective information was related to the cognitive reappraisal strategy of emotion regulation. Inhibition was associated with the more frequent use of expressive suppression. Shifting was associated with neither cognitive reappraisal nor expressive suppression. Finally, the affective content of the tasks when measuring executive functions did not influence the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation strategies.
A novel battery of executive functions tasks with non-affective and affective content was created. Although the individual tasks were not new, there is no existing battery of tasks that measures updating, shifting, and inhibition by incorporating non-affective and affective
content in these tasks. The novel battery contained the n-back, letter-number, and Stroop tasks.
The present thesis provided data on the outcome of emotion regulation strategies measured via self-reports, behavioural, and psychophysiological responses. We were able to observe how a singular emotional reaction is manifested via self-reports, facial expressions (EMG of corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major), and autonomic responses (SCR and HR). The data also showed that there is greater HR deceleration during the suppression of negative emotions. The assessment of the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in previous studies failed to examine the outcome in the three main pathways of emotional expressions (i.e., experiential, behavioural, and physiological reaction).
Unlike previous studies, the present research examined the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation by using both non-affective and affective tasks measuring executive functions. This made it possible to investigate whether non-affective or affective tasks measuring executive functions are more related to emotion regulation. For the first time, inhibition was found to be positively associated with the frequent use of the expressive suppression strategy of emotion regulation.
The review of the literature and the results of the four empirical studies conducted have important theoretical implications. Although the dual-competition framework (Pessoa, 2009) posited the influence of affective content in tasks performance, the present findings do not support this assertion. Indeed, the absence of differences observed between non-affective and affective tasks measuring executive functions could be more prominent in a healthy population, as reported in a recent study (Schweizer et al., 2019). Thus, affect does not influence executive functions in a healthy population.
The outcome of the study on emotion regulation strategies gives further insight into the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015). The effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in reducing negative emotions differed depending on the type of measurement used. Since cognitive reappraisal is applied at the early stage of
emotion generation (i.e., during the interpretation stage), the representation of the affective stimulus is at the conscious stage hence cognitive reappraisal should be more effective than suppression. This was confirmed using the self-report. As a result, cognitive reappraisal is more effective in changing subjective experience because it is less cognitively costly. The pattern of results obtained requires that the investigation of the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies should deploy multiple measures (i.e., subjective experience, facial expressions, and psychophysiological response).
In this research, some theoretical ideas were proposed regarding the specific ways executive functions should relate to emotion regulation strategies. To successfully reappraise an emotional stimulus would require an efficient updating ability, as updating would involve monitoring and manipulation of the emotional stimulus in working memory. This assumption has received partial support from the findings of the present research.
Shifting, which includes the back-and-forth attentional movement between or among multiple tasks and the internal control mechanism that facilitates the prevention of previous task rules from interfering in the subsequent task rules should be relevant for both cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. While the back-and-forth attentional movement in shifting enables one to engage in several tasks at a time, this would be beneficial to cognitive reappraisal due to its requirement to engage in alternative interpretation of an emotional stimulus. Additionally, the internal control mechanism that helps to overcome interference from previous task rules would facilitate the ability to engage in expressive suppression. However, the results of the present study did not support the association between shifting and the two emotion regulation strategies.
As expressive suppression involves inhibiting an ongoing emotional behaviour, this should be subserved by inhibition. This idea has been supported by the present findings on the relationship between inhibition and expressive suppression. Finally, it was postulated that executive functions processing affective content would be more associated with emotion regulation strategies. This is premised on the notion that as emotion regulation deals with
affective information, affective executive functions should predict emotion regulation success. This idea was however not supported by the results of the present research.
This research has far-reaching implications for areas such as cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The textbooks of these subjects could be revised with the new findings obtained in this research. The present findings on emotion regulation show that the manifestation of emotion experience occurs in three main outlets (i.e., self-reports, facial expressions, and physiological responses). To examine the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies, it is important to consider multiple measures. This is important for clinicians as they engage their clients in emotion regulation training. For instance, the deployment of HR sensors in addition to the self-report measures during emotion regulation training would go a long way to provide evidence regarding the changes in an emotional state.
The ability to regulate one's emotion is important for the attainment of subjective wellbeing and social goals. In order to be effective at emotion regulation, efforts are made to educate or train people on how to regulate their emotions. The outcome of this research points to the facilitatory role of executive functions in the implementation of emotion regulation strategies. This means that training manuals that aim to improve emotion regulation should pay an attention to executive functions. Based on the results of this research, it is expected that the improvement of executive functions should play an enabling role in emotion regulation abilities.
Limitations and recommendations for further studies
Even though the thesis has made contributions to the understanding of the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation, the study has some limitations. The sample consisted largely of undergraduate students and younger adults. Hence the findings must be interpreted with caution since they cannot be directly generalized to children and older adults. The samples in the experiments were largely female. Further experiments
targeting other groups (i.e., older adults, children) would help one to understand the extent to which the present findings could be replicated.
The behavioural tasks used for measuring executive functions have limitations as well. Low arousal affective stimuli were used in the affective versions of the tasks. It is unclear whether high-arousal affective stimuli could produce a similar pattern of results. Hence it would be interesting to see a future study using highly arousing stimuli in the tasks measuring the executive functions.
Although the implementation of emotion regulation strategies can be implicit or explicit, only the latter was deployed throughout the research. The use of explicit emotion regulation in the laboratory, despite its inherent benefits, could be influenced by demand characteristics. The advantage of explicit emotion regulation strategy in the laboratory is that the experimenter is able to record the timepoint at which a strategy is initiated and disengaged. This also helps to observe the immediate outcome of the implementation of the emotion regulation strategy. However, the adoption of the explicit emotion regulation strategy could result in some participants merely following the instructions and responding in the way that would appear desirable. Implicit emotion regulation, which occurs naturally and unconsciously, could help explain how executive functions serve as a cognitive basis of emotion regulation. It would therefore be recommended that future research considers using implicit emotion regulation strategies in the laboratory.
Moving forward, future experiments could address these limitations and employ experimental designs that would help to shed more light on the relationship between executive functions and emotion regulation. This would help expand this interesting and highly relevant topic in improving individuals' wellbeing.
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